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Lecture 4

01:830:271 Lecture Notes - Lecture 4: Jacuzzi, Confounding

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Selective Attrition:
Grades in college look at grades from freshmen year to senior year. (Average is about
C- range for freshmen year, B+ in junior year)
Correlations (r)
Positive as one axis is going up or increasing, the other axis is also increasing.
Negative as one axis increases, the other axis is decreasing
Zero the plots are unrelated, not at all correlated
Significant Correlation:
3 Possible Interpretations
o A B
A causes B
o A B
B causes A
o A C B
A and B are both caused by C but that doesn’t mean that A and B are related in
any way.
GPA for A and B is hours of sleep C can be parents
Confounding Variables
Always third party variables that may have a reason for things to be correlated.
Jacuzzi correlated with college in terms of the financial status of a family.
Sitting with parents/family bonding correlating with good grades in terms of
Nature and Nurture
Behavior Genetics
o How much of each
o How do they work together?
Your genes and your environment are correlated
Passive rGE parents encouraging a kid to be surrounded by music because of parents
that have genes with music intelligence. The kid himself did not do anything, he/she just
passively received the genes and environment provided by the parents.
Evocative rGE people do things that cause kids to act certain ways. A child that is
inclined to athletic world, is likely to be active or hyper. So, parents sign him up for
gymnastic or sports.
Active rGE pick experiences that match characteristics; a child who is shy is not going
to be spending time up on stage or trying out for a play. That child’s experience is
supported by their genes. Outgoing child is supported by outgoing genes by their
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