01:830:271 Lecture Notes - Lecture 4: Metacognition, Fluid And Crystallized Intelligence
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1. What are the defining characteristics of the concrete-operational period?
a. Mental operations; reversibility
b. Thinking no longer so easily swayed by appearances
c. concrete-operational thinking is limited to the tangible and real, to the here and
2. What is the major limitation of the concrete-operational period?
a. But limited to concrete/ real world situations
b. Ex: liquid is transferred from one beaker to another of a different shape. In this
task, concrete-operational children realize that the amount of liquid is the same
after it has been poured into a different beaker, and they explain that the pouring
can always be reversed.
3. Why do concrete operational thinkers answer the feather-hits-a-glass question
a. Will base their answer on experience
4. Recognize examples of organization and elaboration memory strategies.
a. organization—structuring information to be remembered by putting related
information together. For example, a sixth grader trying to remember major
battles of the American Civil War could organize them geographically (e.g.,
Shiloh and Fort Donelson in Tennessee, Antietam and Monocacy in Maryland) or
chronologically (e.g., Fort Sumter and First Manassas in 1861, Gettysburg and
Vicksburg in 1863).
b. elaboration—embellishing information to make it more memorable. To see
elaboration in action, imagine a child who can’t remember whether the second
syllable of rehearsal is spelled her or hear. The child could remember the correct
spelling by reminding himself that rehearsal is like re-hear-ing. Thus, thinking
about the derivation of rehearsal makes it easier to remember how to spell it.
5. What is metamemory and how does it help children’s memory?
a. Diagnosing memory problems accurately and monitoring the effectiveness of
memory strategies are two important elements of metamemory, which refers to a
child’s intuitive understanding of memory.
b. they learn more about how memory operates and devise naive theories of memory
that represent an extension of the theory of mind described
c. children learn they sometimes forget and that some types of memory tasks are
easier than others.
6. What is metacognition and do children have it?
a. Such knowledge and awareness of cognitive processes is called metacognitive
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