01:830:271 Lecture Notes - Lecture 5: Parenting Styles, Observational Learning
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1. What are the 2 general dimensions of parenting?
a. One is the degree of warmth and responsiveness that parents show their children.
Some parents are openly warm and affectionate with their children.
b. A second general dimension of parental behavior involves control, which comes
in two forms (Grusec, 2011). Psychological control refers to parents’ efforts to
manipulate their children’s emotional states by, for example, withdrawing their
love or making children feel guilty. Behavioral control refers to parents’ efforts to
set rules for their children and to impose limits on what children can and cannot
do. Some parents are dictatorial: They try to regulate every facet of their
children’s lives. At the other extreme are parents who exert little or no control
over their children: These children do whatever they want without asking parents
first or worrying about their parents’ response.
2. Know the 4 basic parenting styles and their definitions. Be able to recognize
a. Authoritarian parenting combines high control with little warmth. These parents
lay down rules and expect them to be followed without discussion. These parents
emphasize respect and obedience.
b. Authoritative parenting combines a fair degree of parental control with being
warm and responsive to children. Authoritative parents explain rules and
c. Permissive parenting offers warmth and caring but little control. These parents
generally accept their children’s behavior and punish them infrequently.
d. Uninvolved parenting provides neither warmth nor control. Indifferent and
uninvolved parents provide for their children’s basic physical and emotional
needs but little else.
3. Which parenting style leads to the best outcomes for most Americans? Why?
a. Authoritative parenting is best for most children most of the time. Children with
authoritative parents tend to have better grades and are responsible, self-reliant,
4. Why is the authoritarian style more prevalent in China?
a. In China, for example, emotional restraint and obedience are seen as the keys to
family harmony. Consequently, parents in China often rely on an authoritarian
style in which they are infrequently affectionate and expect their children to obey
them without question.
5. How does SES affect parenting style?
6. What are the 3 specific parenting behaviors described by your text that are known
to influence children and their development?
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