01:830:271 Lecture Notes - Lecture 6: Justin Bieber, Peer Pressure, Shoplifting
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1. What are the positive characteristics associated with having good friends in
a. Lasting friendships benefit children (Berndt & Murphy, 2002). Children with
good friends have greater self-esteem, are less likely to be lonely and depressed,
and more often act prosocially by sharing and cooperating with others
2. What are the potential costs of friendship?
a. Sometimes friends spend much of their time together discussing each other’s
personal problems, which is known as co-rumination. Girls do this more than
boys (consistent with intimacy being more important to girls’ friendships). Such
co-rumination strengthens girls’ friendships but also puts them at risk for greater
depression and anxiety.
3. Is peer pressure necessarily a bad thing?
a. peers often urge one another to work hard in school, to participate in school
activities, or to become involved in community action projects
4. What are the 3 factors that influence how strong peer pressure is?
a. youth are younger and more socially anxious;
b. peers have high status or are friends; and
c. standards for appropriate behavior are not clear-cut, as in tastes in music or
clothing or standards for smoking and drinking. For example, when 14-year-old
Doug’s popular best friend gets his haircut like Justin Bieber, Doug may go along
because he’s young, the peer is popular and his friend, and there are no fixed
standards for hairstyle. But when an unpopular kid that 18-year-old Kelly barely
knows suggests to her that they go to the mall and shoplift some earrings, Kelly
will resist because she’s older, the peer is neither popular nor a friend, and norms
for shoplifting are clear.
5. Know the 5 peer “popularity” categories.
a. Popular children are liked by many classmates.
b. Rejected children are disliked by many classmates.
c. Controversial children are both liked and disliked intensely by classmates.
d. Average children are liked and disliked by some classmates but without the
intensity found for popular, rejected, or controversial children.
e. Neglected children are ignored by classmates.
6. Know the two types of popular and rejected children.
a. Most popular children are good students who are usually friendly, cooperative,
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