01:830:271 Lecture Notes - Lecture 8: Identity Formation, Age 13, Dating Abuse
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1. How do parents and peers help adolescents progress toward identity achievement?
a. Parents: Adolescents are most likely to establish a well-defined identity in a
family atmosphere in which parents encourage children to explore alternatives on
their own but do not pressure or provide explicit direction
b. Peers: When adolescents have close friends that they trust, they feel more secure
2. What are the 3 phases of ethnic identity development as described by Phinney?
a. 1: Initially, adolescents have not examined their ethnic roots, often because
they’re not interested
b. 2: adolescents like Dea (from the vignette) begin to explore the personal impact of
their ethnic heritage. The curiosity characteristic of this stage is captured in the
comments of a teenage African American girl who said, “I want to learn more
about our history—back in Africa, in slavery, and during the Civil Rights
movement. Going to the Black Cultural Center is one way I can find out about
c. 3: individuals achieve a distinct ethnic self-concept. One Asian American
adolescent explained his ethnic identification like this: “I was born in LA, but my
parents grew up in Mexico and came here when they were teenagers like me. I
love hearing them talk about their lives there, and I’m proud that I can speak
Spanish with my cousins who live in Mexico. But I’m also proud to be an
American and like to learn about my country’s heritage.”
3. What are the benefits of having a strong ethnic identity?
a. Higher self-esteem. Enjoy interactions. happier.
b. less affected by discrimination—they maintain their self-worth after experiencing
racial or ethnic discrimination
4. What is the general pattern of change in the level of self-esteem through childhood
a. Self-esteem is normally high in preschool children but declines gradually during
the early elementary-school years as children compare themselves with others. By
the beginning of adolescence, self-esteem has usually stabilized—it neither
increases nor decreases in these years. However, self-esteem sometimes drops
when children move from elementary to middle school. Apparently, when
students from different elementary schools enter the same middle or junior high
school, they know where they stand compared with their old elementary-school
classmates but not compared with students from other elementary schools. Thus,
peer comparisons begin anew, and self-esteem often suffers temporarily. As a
new school becomes familiar and students gradually adjust to the new pecking
order, self-esteem again increases.
5. What does it mean that self-esteem becomes more differentiated?
a. Youth are able to evaluate themselves in more domains as they develop, and their
evaluations in each domain are increasingly independent. For example, a 9-year-
old may have high self-esteem in the academic, social, and physical domains, but
a 15-year-old might have high self-esteem in the academic domain, moderate self-
esteem in the social domain, and low self-esteem in the physical domain.
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