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Lecture 3

01:830:321 Lecture Notes - Lecture 3: Twin Study, Twin, Cognitive Dissonance


Department
Psychology
Course Code
01:830:321
Professor
D.Sanchez
Lecture
3

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Attitudes and Behavior
Attitude
A positive, negative or mixed reaction to a person, object or idea expressed at some level
of intensity
Attitudes are Pervasive
There are few things in which we truly feel neutral
Components of Attitudes
Cognitive - beliefs about attitude object
Dentists are friendly
Dentists are expensive
Affective - emotions and feelings the object triggers
Dentists make me feel anxious
I like dentists
Behavioral - reaction toward the object
I visit the dentists twice a year
I am a very cooperative patient
Why People Have Attitudes
Value - Expensive function: express who we are
Ego - defensive function: protect self esteem
Instrumental Function - obtain awards, avoid punishments
Knowledge Function - understand people and events
How Attitude Are Measured: Self Report Measures

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Attitude Scale: a multiple item questionnaire designed to measure a person’s attitude
toward some object (from 1 to 10)
Bogus Pipeline: a phony lie detector device that is sometimes used to get respondents to
give truthful answers to sensitive questions
Self Report Measures
Atitude scale
Bogus pipeline
Covert Measures
Videotape
Facial Electromyograph (EMG)
Brain Imaging
Implicit Association Test (IAT): measure the speed at which one responds to pairing of
concepts
Responses
Old Fashioned Racism: “i would mind if a black family moved next door”
Old Fashioned Sexism: “women should stay home and not worry about having a career”
Interpreting Reaction Times
Faster responding to positive words when Rutgers is paired with pleasant = positive
implicit attitude towards Rutgers
Finding IAT
Self over Other
White over Black
Young over Old
Males over Females
Explicit and Implicit Correspondence
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Average correspondence is 0.24
Where Do Attitude Come From?
Genes: twin studies
High correlation on attitude strength and content for identical raised together or
apart
Significantly lower for fraternal twins
Affectively Based
Behaviorally Based: based on people’s observations of how one behaves towards an
attitude object
Operant Conditioning: the case whereby behaviors that people freely choose to perform
increase or decrease in frequency
Origins of Attitudes: Social Experiences
Affectively Based Attitudes: based on people’s feelings of an attitude object (not on
beliefs)
Sources of Affectively Based Attitudes
Values
Mere Exposure: the tendency to develop more positive feelings towards objects
Classical Conditioning: The case whereby a stimulus that elicits an emotional
response is repeatedly experience along with a neutral stimulus that does not, until
the neutral stimulus takes on the emotional properties of the first time
How Attitudes Are Formed
Strong likes and dislikes partly rooted in our genetic makeup
Our most cherished attitudes are learned
Evaluative conditioning
General Attitudes and Specific Behaviors
Must be correspondence between level of specificity of attitude and behavior
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