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Lecture 3

01:830:338 Lecture Notes - Lecture 3: Actual Size, Random Assignment, Type I And Type Ii Errors


Department
Psychology
Course Code
01:830:338
Professor
Professor Lyra Stein
Lecture
3

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L3 - Assessment, Effect Size, & Ethics
Wednesday, September 14, 2016
2:06 PM
Nature of personality assessment:
o Includes motives, intentions, goals, strategies, and how ppl perceive and construct the world
o Assessment = measurement of relatively stable attributes of ppl
Personality tests
o Common tests:
MMPI = most widely used personality test in the world --> used for clinical assessment
of individuals w/ psych difficulties + employment screening
CPI = similar to MMPI but for "normal" / non-disturbed individuals
o Most personality tests are Omnibus inventory (measuring more than one trait) VS. One-trait
measures
o S Data VS. B Data Personality tests:
Most personality tests provide S data --> directly asking subject to describe himself
Exceptions of tests that provide B data --> answers to items on these tests non-
directly indicate certain personality traits
MMPI
Implicit Association Test (IAT) = measures response time to instructions in
discriminating b/w terms that apply to "me" or to others", and b/w terms that
are relevant or not to the trait being measured
Theory: ppl who implicitly (unconsciously) know they have a certain trait
will respond faster when the trait is paired w/ "me"
Also helps to test for one's intelligence --> questions ranging in difficulty;
greater accuracy means higher IQ
A.k.a. performance-based instrument & "projective" test
Projective Tests = projecting yourself into a stimuli
o Projective hypothesis: interpretation of a meaningless or ambiguous stimulus projects the
individual's needs, feelings, experiences, thought processes, etc.
o Rorschach Inkblot Test = looking at inkblot and deciphering what it is they see
o Thematic Apperception Test = creating a story of what happened in the past, present, and
future based off a picture
Unconscious motives are projected onto a story --> psychologist can interpret what is
unconsciously on subject's mind
o Draw-a-Person Test = drawing a person and interpreting based on the kind of person being
drawn
Mostly used w/ children
o How accurate are they?
Projective tests have low validity b/c: many factors come into account, depends on
the interpretation of the therapist
No sound empirical data exists
o Projective tests provide B data
Disadvantages: are expensive, time-consuming, varies in interpretation
o Evaluating Rorschach Test:
Gets best results when it is scored using "Exner's Comprehensive System" or "Klopfer's
technique"
.33 correlation coefficient --> test is correct 66% of the time
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May be better than MMPI in predicting specific outcomes like suicide, attendance at
treatment sessions, commitment to mental hospital
o Evaluating Thematic Apperception Test (TAT):
Measures implicit motivation of unconscious desires, aspirations, needs
The test may measure diff aspects of personality compared to more conventional
objective tests -->its measures may not correlate b/c they measure 2 diff types of
motivation
Questionnaires measure explicit or self-attributed motivation --> reflect a person's self
awareness of conscious motives (Traits VS. States)
TAT measures what a person wants, Questionnaires measure how those motives are
expressed
Implicit motives better predict long-term behavioral trends over time
Objective Tests = tests consisting of a list of questions to be answered (Y/N, T/F) or on a numerical
scale and is more objective, less open to interpretation than projective tests
o Validity: is not as "objective" as it seems due to different definitions of words/items on the
test --> each person may interpret them differently
o Commonality = items on the test that are answered in the same way by at least 95% of all
ppl
Used to detect illiterates pretending to read, and those sabotaging the test
Are not very useful for personality measurement b/c almost everyone answers
similarly
o Large amt of questions asked b/c of principle of aggregation
Answers individuals give may not be particularly informative (varying on how they
interpret the q + other factors)
Getting answers to a bunch of similar questions can then be averaged out --> thus
more stable/reliable when random fluctuations cancel out
Increases test reliability (test that gives close to same answer time after time)
Methods of Objective Test Construction (to increase test validity):
o Rational - come up w/ items that are directly, obviously, and rationally related to what the
test develop wishes to measure
o Gathers S data --> direct and undisguised self-reports = high face validity
o 4 conditions for HIGH validity (ALL must be met) :
Items mean the same thing to the test taker and creator
Individual is capable in making an accurate self-assessment--> understands the
questions, able to observe himself
Individual must be willing to make an accurate and undistorted report --> cannot deny
his symptoms or exaggerate
Items must be valid indicators of what the tester is trying to measure
o Item Selection:
Must be clear, relatively simple
Should discriminate among test takers
Should be intercorrelated but not so highly that they are redundant
Total score of assessment should have normal distribution
Avoid ceiling and floor effects
Be sensitive to variability across the range of scores
Item Response Theory
NBTI - true or false scale
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