10:832:335 Lecture Notes - Lecture 1: World Health Organization, Coronary Artery Disease, Prostate-Specific Antigen

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Week 1 - Course Overview History and Scope of Epidemiology
Course Overview
Syllabus
Assignments
Grading
Expectations
Schedule
About Me survey
Lecture Learning Objectives
Overview of Epidemiology
Understand health and its dimensions
Define the terms Public health, Population, and Epidemiology
Define epidemiology and its components
Name and describe characteristics of the epidemiologic approach
Discuss the history and evolution of epidemiology
Historic events
Contributions of key individuals
Theories of disease causation
What is Health?
World Health Organization (WHO):
Health is a state of coplete physical, etal ad social well-being and not merely the absence
of disease or ifirity
6 dimensions of health
6 Dimensions of Health
Physical
Social
Mental
Emotional
Spiritual
Environmental
What is Public Health?
Public health is the science and art of promoting health and extending life on the
population level
Public health is concerned with threats to health in the population
A group of people sharing one or more characteristics
The mission of public health is to ensure conditions that promote the six dimensions of
health in the population as a whole
Public Health and Epidemiology
There are many subfields of public health, including
Epidemiology
Biostatistics
Health services
Because of its central role in public health, epidemiology is commonly referred to as the
foundation of public health (the basic science of public health)
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A Foundation of Public Health
Epidemiology plays a central role in carrying out the 3 core public health functions
The assessment and monitoring of the health of communities/populations at
risk to identify health problems and priorities
The formulation of public policies designed to solve identified local/national
health problems/priorities
To assure that all populations have access to appropriate and cost-effective care,
including health promotion and disease prevention services, and evaluation of
the effectiveness of that care
What is Epidemiology?
Epidemiology is the study of the distribution and determinants of health-related states
or events in human populations, and the application of this study to prevent and
control health problems
What is Epidemiology?
Epi + deos + logos = the stud of that hih efalls a
epiprefix meaning on, upon, or befall
demosroot meaning the people
logossuffix meaning the study
Key Aspects of this Definition
Study
Epidemiology involves sound methods of scientific investigation.
Methods rely on careful observation and the use of valid comparison groups to
determine whether the observed health events differ from what might be
expected.
Key Aspects of this Definition
Distribution
Study of frequency and pattern of health events in the population
Frequency
Count
Number in relation to the population
Frequency of disease occurrence may vary from one population group to
another:
Hypertension more common among young black men than among
young white men
Coronary heart disease occurrence differs between Hispanics and
non-Hispanics
Key Aspects of this Definition
Determinants
Factors or events that are capable of bringing about a change in health:
Biologic agents--bacteria
Chemical agents--carcinogens
Less specific factors--stress, drinking, sedentary lifestyle, or high-fat diet
Health-related states or events
Disease states
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Cholera, influenza, pneumonia, mental illness
Conditions associated with health
Physical activity, nutrition, environmental poisoning, seat belt use, and
provision and use of health services
Events
Injury, drug abuse, and suicide
Epidemiology vs. Medicine
Epidemiology focuses on populations
Population trends, risk factors, screening, clinical trials, interventions and
treatment outcomes
Epidemiology examines disease occurrence among population groups,
not individuals
Epidemiology is often referred to as population medicine
The epidemiologic description indicates variation by age groups, time,
geographic location, and other variables
So we say that Epidemiology has a POPULATION FOCUS
Medicine focuses on the individual
Individual signs and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment
What is the Meaning of Population?
Population refers to a collection of individuals that share one or more observable
personal or observational characteristics from which data may be collected and
evaluated
Examples?
“o… “hort Defiitio
Epidemiology is the study of the distribution and determinants of health phenomenon
in populations
Aims of Epidemiology
Describe population health status
Distribution of outcomes
Rates
Explain disease patterns
Causes
Transmission
Predict/monitor health outcomes
Surveillance
Screening
Control distribution of diseases
Prevention
Containment of disease
Foundations of Epidemiology
Human diseases do not occur by chance
Factors that cause or contribute to diseases and injuries can be identified by means of
systematic investigation
Goals
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