01:920:240 Lecture Notes - Lecture 2: Meiosis, Horizontal Gene Transfer, Genetic Variation

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Prokaryotes: first organisms on earth, ~ 3. 5 bya evolved, origin of life (lecture 25. 1 + 25. 3) c. i. Heterotrophs 1st types of prokaryotes that evolved c. iii. Aerobes extract atp from nutrients they took in: domains bacteria and archaea, dominant e. i. Ex. human body comprised of abt 70 trillion cells e. i. 1. Abt 700 trillion bacteria: pervasive (found everywhere, size, 0. 5-5 nm ii. Preventing the cell from bursting in a hypotonic environment a. i. 3. a. Doesn"t prevent plasmolysis in a hypertonic environment a. i. 3. b. Sugars that are cross-linked by short polypeptides a. ii. 3. not in eukaryotic cell walls a. ii. 3. a. plants cellulose a. ii. 3. b. fungi cell walls have chitin a. ii. 4. It divides the bacteria into two categories a. ii. 4. b. Gram positive (bacteria) cell walls thick of peptidoglycan a. ii. 4. b. iii. 1. Cell wall thin layer of peptidoglycan a. ii. 4. b. iv. 2. Do not retain the crystal violet well a. ii. 4. b. iv. 3. 27. 3: capsules and slime layers (chacteristics of prokaryotes) b. i. Fimbriae shorter and more numerous than pili c. iii. Generally used for attachments (substrates / cells: endospores d. i.

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