C hapter 4
I. Why Focus on Israel and the Palestinian Territories?
A. Century-long conflict between Jews and Palestinians over land that both
groups call home.
1. The conflict has involved six wars (1948, 1956, 1967, 1968–1971,
1982, and 2006) and two major intifadas (uprisings).
2. The conflict has been ongoing since approximately 1900, when Jews
began their return “home” in response to widespread persecution
3. The U.S. has acted as peace broker in this region.
A. Core Concept 1: In the broadest sense of the wordsocialization” is the
society in which they live.elop a sense of self and learn the ways of the
1. Socialization - the process by which people develop a sense of self and
learn the ways of the society in which they live
2. Internalization - the process in which people take as their own and
accept as binding the norms, values, beliefs, and language that their
socializers are attempting to pass on
3. Nature - human genetic makeup or biological inheritance
4. Nurture - the social environment or the interaction experiences that
make up every individual’s life
5. Both nature and nurture are essential to socialization.
6. Social interaction is essential to human development.
B. Core Concept 2: Socialization depends on meaningful interaction experiences
1. Cases of children raised in extreme isolation or in restrictive and
sterile environments show the importance of social contact (nurture) in
regard to normal development.
2. Sociologist Kingsley Davis’ work on the consequences of extreme
isolation (Anna and Isabelle) demonstrates how neglect and lack of
social contact influence emotional, mental, and even physical
3. Psychiatrist Rene Spitz studied 91 infants who were raised by their
parents during their first three to four months of life but who were later
placed in orphanages.
4. Children need close contact with and stimulation from others if they
are to develop normally.
5. Anna Freud and Sophie Dann (1958) studied six German Jewish
children whose parents had been killed in the gas chambers of Nazi
III. Individual and Collective Memory
A. Core Concept 3: Socialization is impossible without memory; memories
passed on from one generation to the next preserve and sustain culture.
a. Memory - the capacity to retain and recall past experiences
b. Neurological evidence on memory suggests that some physical
trace, stored in an anatomical entity called an engram, remains in
the brain after new learning takes place.
c. Memory has more than an individual quality; it is strongly social.
i. No one can participate in society without the ability to recall
such things as names, faces, places, words, symbols, and
ii. Most “newcomers” easily learn the language, norms, values,
and beliefs of the surrounding culture.
iii. People born at approximately the same time and place have
likely lived through many of the same events and possess a
IV. Development of the Social Self
A. Core Concept 4: People acquire a sense of self when they can role-take.
1. The self becomes an object when children can:
a. take the role of the other (role-take).
b. name, classify, and categorize the self.
B. Core Concept 5: Meaningful social interaction depends on the involved
parties sharing significant symbols.
1. Role Taking: The process of stepping into another person’s shoes by
which to imaginatively view and assess our (and others) behavior,
appearance, and thoughts.
a. Preparatory Stage (age 2 and under): Children have not yet
developed the cognitive ability to role-take. They mimic or imitate
people around them but often do not know the meaning of what
they are imitating.
b. Play Stage (ages 2 to 6): voluntary, spontaneous activity with few
or no formal rules. The mechanism by which children practice
i. Significant others: People or characters who are important in
an individual’s life, in that they greatly influence that person’s
self-evaluation or motivate him or her to behave in a particular
c. Game Stage (age 7 and older): In Mead’s theory, the play stage is
followed by the game stage. Games are structured, organized
activities that involve more than one person.
i. Generalized other: A system of expected behaviors, meanings,
and viewpoints that transcend those of the people participating.
A. Significant symbols - gestures that convey “the same meaning for the person
transmitting it as for the person receiving it”
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a. The me - the social self—the part of the self that is the product of
interaction with others and that has internalized the rules and
b. The I - the active and creative aspect of the self that questions the
expectations and rules for behavior.
B. The Looking-Glass Self
1. A process in which a sense of self develops, enabling one to see
oneself reflected in others’ real or imagined reactions to one’s
appearance and behaviors.
II. Cognitive Development
A. Swiss psychologist Jean Piaget, the author of many influential and
provocative books about how children think, reason, and lea