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01:920:101 (90)

Lecture 4

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Professor Wilhelms

Socialization C hapter 4 Socialization Chapter Outline I. Why Focus on Israel and the Palestinian Territories? A. Century-long conflict between Jews and Palestinians over land that both groups call home. 1. The conflict has involved six wars (1948, 1956, 1967, 1968–1971, 1982, and 2006) and two major intifadas (uprisings). 2. The conflict has been ongoing since approximately 1900, when Jews began their return “home” in response to widespread persecution throughout Europe. 3. The U.S. has acted as peace broker in this region. II. Socialization A. Core Concept 1: In the broadest sense of the wordsocialization” is the society in which they live.elop a sense of self and learn the ways of the 1. Socialization - the process by which people develop a sense of self and learn the ways of the society in which they live 2. Internalization - the process in which people take as their own and accept as binding the norms, values, beliefs, and language that their socializers are attempting to pass on 3. Nature - human genetic makeup or biological inheritance 4. Nurture - the social environment or the interaction experiences that make up every individual’s life 5. Both nature and nurture are essential to socialization. 6. Social interaction is essential to human development. B. Core Concept 2: Socialization depends on meaningful interaction experiences with others. 1. Cases of children raised in extreme isolation or in restrictive and sterile environments show the importance of social contact (nurture) in regard to normal development. 2. Sociologist Kingsley Davis’ work on the consequences of extreme isolation (Anna and Isabelle) demonstrates how neglect and lack of social contact influence emotional, mental, and even physical development. 3. Psychiatrist Rene Spitz studied 91 infants who were raised by their parents during their first three to four months of life but who were later placed in orphanages. 4. Children need close contact with and stimulation from others if they are to develop normally. 44 Socialization 5. Anna Freud and Sophie Dann (1958) studied six German Jewish children whose parents had been killed in the gas chambers of Nazi Germany. III. Individual and Collective Memory A. Core Concept 3: Socialization is impossible without memory; memories passed on from one generation to the next preserve and sustain culture. a. Memory - the capacity to retain and recall past experiences b. Neurological evidence on memory suggests that some physical trace, stored in an anatomical entity called an engram, remains in the brain after new learning takes place. c. Memory has more than an individual quality; it is strongly social. i. No one can participate in society without the ability to recall such things as names, faces, places, words, symbols, and norms. ii. Most “newcomers” easily learn the language, norms, values, and beliefs of the surrounding culture. iii. People born at approximately the same time and place have likely lived through many of the same events and possess a collective memory. IV. Development of the Social Self A. Core Concept 4: People acquire a sense of self when they can role-take. 1. The self becomes an object when children can: a. take the role of the other (role-take). b. name, classify, and categorize the self. B. Core Concept 5: Meaningful social interaction depends on the involved parties sharing significant symbols. 1. Role Taking: The process of stepping into another person’s shoes by which to imaginatively view and assess our (and others) behavior, appearance, and thoughts. a. Preparatory Stage (age 2 and under): Children have not yet developed the cognitive ability to role-take. They mimic or imitate people around them but often do not know the meaning of what they are imitating. b. Play Stage (ages 2 to 6): voluntary, spontaneous activity with few or no formal rules. The mechanism by which children practice role taking. i. Significant others: People or characters who are important in an individual’s life, in that they greatly influence that person’s self-evaluation or motivate him or her to behave in a particular manner. c. Game Stage (age 7 and older): In Mead’s theory, the play stage is followed by the game stage. Games are structured, organized activities that involve more than one person. i. Generalized other: A system of expected behaviors, meanings, and viewpoints that transcend those of the people participating. A. Significant symbols - gestures that convey “the same meaning for the person transmitting it as for the person receiving it” 45 Chapter 4 a. The me - the social self—the part of the self that is the product of interaction with others and that has internalized the rules and expectations. b. The I - the active and creative aspect of the self that questions the expectations and rules for behavior. B. The Looking-Glass Self 1. A process in which a sense of self develops, enabling one to see oneself reflected in others’ real or imagined reactions to one’s appearance and behaviors. II. Cognitive Development A. Swiss psychologist Jean Piaget, the author of many influential and provocative books about how children think, reason, and lea
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