Class Notes (807,384)
United States (312,507)
Sociology (300)
01:920:101 (90)
Lecture 7

Lecture 7

5 Pages
Unlock Document

Rutgers University
Professor Wilhelms

Chapter 7 C hapter 7 Deviance, Conformity and Social Control Chapter Outline I. Why focus on the People’s Republic of China? A. It represents an interesting case for studying issues of deviance, conformity, and social control. B. In China from 1966 to 1976, during the period known as the Cultural Revolution, many behaviors constituted deviance and could elicit interrogation, arrest, and punishment. II. Deviance, Conformity, and Social Control A. Core Concept 1: The only characteristic common to all forms of deviance is that some social audience challengesaondemns a behavior or an appearance because it departs from established norms. 1. Deviance - any behavior or physical appearance that is socially challenged or condemned because it departs from the norms and expectations of a group 2. Conformity - behaviors and appearances that follow and maintain the standards of a group; also the acceptance of the cultural goals and the pursuit of those goals through means defined as legitimate. 3. Social control - methods used to teach, persuade, or force a group’s members, and even nonmembers, to comply with and not deviate from its norms and expectations 4. Almost every behavior has, at some time, qualified as deviant or conforming. 5. It is difficult to generate a precise list of deviant behaviors and appearances. a. Behaviors that some consider deviant may not be considered deviant by others. b. Behaviors considered deviant at one time and place may not be considered deviant at another. B. Deviance: The Violation of Norms 1. Core Concept 2: Ideally, conformity is voluntary. When socialization fails to produce conformity, other mechanisms of social control— sanctions, censorship, or surveillance—may be used to convey and enforce norms. 2. Norms give order and predictability to life, and some norms are considered more important than others. There are two kinds of norms. a. Folkways are customary ways of handling the routine matters of everyday life. b. Mores are norms that people define as essential to the well-being of their group. 72 Chapter 7 i. People who violate mores are usually punished severely. ii. Unlike folkways, mores are considered unchangeable and are regarded as “the only way” and “the truth.” C. Socialization as a Means of Social Control 1. Socialization - the process by which most people come to learn the ways of their culture and accept them as natural 2. All societies establish mechanisms of social control to ensure conformity. D. Mechanisms of Social Control 1. Sanctions—reactions of approval or disapproval to others’ behavior or appearance a. Positive sanction - an expression of approval and a reward for compliance b. Negative sanction - an expression of disapproval for noncompliance c. Sanctions can be formal or informal. i. Informal sanctions - spontaneous, unofficial expressions of approval or disapproval that are not backed by the force of law ii. Formal sanctions - expressions of approval or disapproval backed by laws, rules, or policies that specify (usually in writing) the conditions under which people should be rewarded or punished and the procedures for allocating rewards and administering punishments E. Censorship and Surveillance 1. Censorship - a method of preventing information from reaching an audience. 2. Surveillance - A mechanism of social control that involves watching and otherwise monitoring the movements, activities, conversations, and associations of people to prevent them from engaging in wrongdoing; to catch those who are engaged in wrong doing; and to ensure that the public is protected from wrongdoers. 3. Disciplinary society - A social arrangement that normalizes surveillance, making it expected and routine. III. The Functionalist Perspective A. Core Concept 3: It is impossible for a society to exist without deviance. Always and everywhere, there will be some behaviors or appearances that offend collective sentiments. B. Émile Durkheim (1901) argued that although definitions of what constitutes deviance vary by place, it is present in all societies. 1. Deviance has an important function in society for, at least, two reasons. a. The ritual of identifying and exposing the wrongdoing, determining a punishment, and carrying it out is an emotional experience that binds together the members of a group and establishes a sense of community. b. Deviance is functional because it helps bring about necessary change and helps prepare people for change. II. Labeling Theory 73 Deviance, Conformity and Social Control A. Core Concept 4: Labeling theorists maintain that an act is deviant when people notice it and then take action to label it as a violation and apply appropriate sanctions. B. Labeling theorists are guided by two assumptions: 1. Rules are socially constructed. Because definitions of deviant behavior vary across time and place, people must decide what is deviant. 2. Rules are not enforced uniformly or consistently. Some people break rules and escape detection, whereas others are treated as offenders even though they have broken no rules. C. Labeling theorists maintain that whether an act is deviant depends on whether people notice it and, if they do notice it, on whether they label it as a violation of a rule and, subsequently, apply sanctions. D. Labeling theorists suggest that for every rule a social group creates, four categories of people exist. 1. Conformists - people who have not violated the rules of a group and are treated accordingly 2. Pure deviants - people who have broken the rules and are caught, punished, and labeled as outsiders 3. Secret deviants - people who have broken the rules but whose violation goes unnoticed or if it is noticed, prompts those who notice it to look the other way, rather than report the violation. 4. The f alsely accused are people who have not broken the rules but are treated as if they have. E. The Falsely Accused 1. People are likely to be falsely accused of a crime when the well-being of a country or a group is threatened. Th
More Less

Related notes for 01:920:101

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.