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Lecture 22

BIOL 212 Lecture 22: Digestive System

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BIOL 212

Lecture #22 - The Digestive System [4/24/2017] I. Major Functions A.Ingestion - intake into mouth, process of putting food into the body B.Mechanical processing - breakdown of particles through segmentation [mixing food + fluid within digestive tract] and mastication [chewing] C.Propulsion - moving the particles through the digestive tract [towards the anus] 1.Swallowing - can be either voluntary or involuntary 2.Peristalsis - waves of muscular contraction [moves food through GI tract] D.Chemical digestion - stomach acid and other digestive enzymes helping with breakdown of particles 1.Occurs in mouth, stomach, and intestines 2.Breakdown carbs, proteins, and lipids E.Absorption - movement of nutrients into the bloodstream 1.Mostly occurs in small intestine F.Excretion - defecation, elimination of waste from the body II. Overview of the digestive system A.Alimentary canal 1.GI tract -- oral cavity -- pharynx [oro- to laryngo-] -- esophagus -- stomach -- small intestine -- large intestine -- rectum -- anus -- mesentery B.Accessory organs 1.Teeth, tongue and salivary glands in the oral cavity 2.Gastric gland in the stomach 3.Gall bladder, liver, brush border enzymes, and pancreas in the small intestine III. O
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