ENS 401A Lecture 7: Module 7 – Functional Training

11 Pages
Unlock Document

Exercise And Nutritional Sciences
ENS 401A
Fabio Comana

Module 7 – Functional Training Program Design ➢ General Adaption Syndrome; Periodization; Programming Principles • Review: General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS) o Han’s Seyle model explains the physiological manner in which a body responds to stress stimulus ▪ Acute Stress – immediate “fight-or-flight” response (stimulus) ▪ Chronic Stress – adaptive responses that can be both healthy (continued training) and unhealthy (life stress) o 1 Phase: Shock or Alarm ▪ With training, individuals generally feel fatigued, weak, and sore initially ▪ Usually lasts a few days to perhaps one week o 2 Phase: Adaptation or Resistance ▪ If stressors persist – body will begin to adapt (or perish) ▪ Training – after shock phase, individuals witness gains • Weeks 1-3: neurological adaptations • Weeks 2-4: passive tissue strengthening (e.g. tendons) • Weeks 3-5: muscle adaptations begin (2-3 months in older adults) o 3 Phase: Exhaustion ▪ Depletion of body’s resources – unable to restore normal function • Compromises immune system function – increases potential for injury and illness • Referred to as overtraining (preceded by overreaching • Key Training Principles of Adaption, Progress, and Detraining o Principles of Overload ▪ Adaptations occur when muscles are exposed to intensities greater than those the muscle is accustomed o Principle of Specificity ▪ Adaptations are in direct response to the type of overload imposed ▪ SAID Principle – Specific Adaptations to Imposed Demands o Principle of Progression ▪ To safely apply overload, training intensity or volume must gradually increase over time o Principle of Reversibility ▪ Muscle detraining occurs when the stimulus is removed • Significant decreases in muscular strength (up to 50%) can occur within 4- 12 weeks of training cessation (1x/week can maintain most gains) o Principle of Diminishing Returns ▪ A genetic potential or ceiling effect, demonstrating lower returns with training • Continued adaption requires programs to constantly manipulate (progress) variables that reflect overload and specificity o Primary Variables: ▪ Volume (V) = amount of work (stabilization, endurance) ▪ Load (L) = intensity of work (strength, hypertrophy) ▪ Power (P) = rate of work (maximal power, power endurance) o Many other variables exist (components of, or independent of VLP) • Many of these outcomes are defined (distinguished) by how we manipulate the training variables o Mobilization Training or Stretching ▪ Goal: Improve range of motion or tissue extensibility (e.g. stretching) o Stabilization Endurance Training ▪ Goal: Improve movement efficiency and coordination ▪ Stabilization Training • Goal: Improve muscle’s capacity to control postural control or create efficient movement (e.g. core exercises) ▪ Endurance Training • Goal: Improve the muscle’s ability to work repeatedly and resist fatigue (e.g. push-ups, yoga) o Hypertrophy Training or Body Building ▪ Goal: Increase muscle mass or size o Strength Training ▪ Goal: Enhance the capacity for muscles to generate force (e.g. heavy lifting) o Power Endurance Training ▪ Goal: Improve rate of submaximal force generation + toning / shaping o Maximal Power Training ▪ Goal: Rate of maximal / near-maximal force generation (e.g. Olympics) • Periodization (Progression) Training o Defined: Method of alternating these training variables to produce peak performance at desired times while minimizing the potential for overtraining and injury ▪ Original models (Matveyev, Verkhoshansky, Siff) utilized strategic implementation of load and volume during specific training phases in a linear- type fashion to achieve peak performance o Traditional: Linear Periodization ▪ Legend • End = Endurance • Hyp = Hypertrophy • Hyp & St = Hypertrophy & Strength • St = Strength • Off = Offload o More Recent: Non-linear (Undulating) Periodization ▪ More frequent variations in load (intensity), volume and rate (power) – imposes varying levels of shock upon body • Induces metabolic shock – enables faster rapid-neuro endocrine adaptations • Requires monitoring of symptoms of exhaustion (overtraining) ➢ Applications of Periodization: Manipulating the Key Variables • Muscle adaptation requires different levels of each variable o Training Variables (More Influence) ▪ Intensity and volume ▪ Recovery interval (between sets) ▪ Recovery between subsequent training of same muscle groups ▪ Exercise selection ▪ Eccentric concentrations and tempo (TUT) ▪ Attaining point of failure ▪ Effects of steady-state cardio ▪ Inducing greater levels of hypoxia ▪ Cellular hydration ▪ Nutrition – pre-, peri- and post-protein o Non-Training Variables (Less Influence) ▪ Genetics (ectomorph, mesomorph, endomorph) ▪ Age and gender ▪ Hormonal levels and changes ▪ Training experience ▪ Upper vs. lower extremity growth ▪ Life – normal stress levels and activities ▪ Sleep quality / quantity o For adaptation, we ultimately need to induce: ▪ Mechanical Tension ▪ Muscle Damage ▪ Metabolic Stress • Load – amount of resistance or external load applied to muscles o Greater intensities = increased motor unit recruitment + force production – translate into strength and power o Same load consistently applied (e.g. body weight – yoga) = no muscle overload o Written as percentage of max weight lifted for one repetition (e.g. one rep max or 1RM) o Load is inversely proportional to repetitions ▪ Greater loads = few number of repetitions ▪ Lighter loads = greater number of repetitions • Volume – total amount of work performed o Generally expressed as Sets x number of Repetitions x TUT (optional) ▪ Example: 3 sets x 20 reps = volume of 60 reps ▪ Example: 2 sets x 12 reps x 4 seconds per rep = volume of 96 seconds of work o Total volume used should be dictated by training experience and training goals ▪ Volume progression (e.g. 3 sets x 12 reps = 4 sets x 10 reps) – 36 to 40 • Sets can be designed in many ways o Traditional Superset ▪ 2 sequentially-performed exercises targeting opposing muscle groups before taking a rest interval (e.g. agonist-antagonist) ▪ Example: chest-back o Compound Superset ▪ 2 sequentially-performed exercises targeting same muscle group before taking a rest interval ▪ Example: biceps-biceps o Pre-exhaustive Supersets ▪ Pre-fatiguing assistant muscles (synergists) to target prime mover exclusively Example: triceps / bench press o Linear-rotary Superset ▪ Sequentially performing a linear (more compound) exercise, followed immediately by a rotary (isolation) exercise before taking a rest interval ▪ Example: bench press / cable flyes o Cluster Sets ▪ Utilize built-in, short rest periods of 5-20 or so seconds ▪ Example: 10 sets x 4 reps o Hybrid Set ▪ Sequencing multiple exercises / directions or variations of exercises to flow in immediate succession before taking rest interval ▪ Example: mini-circuit – Db squat / Db curl / Db shoulder press, or multi-planar shoulder press • Time under tension (TUT) increases training volume – translates into muscle mass hypertrophy o Muscle is 20-40% stronger during eccentric phase – TUT in eccentric phase = stimulus for muscle growth (micro-tears + cellular swelling) ▪ Heavier loads (strength, power) require faster, more explosive tempos ▪ Moderate-to-lighter loads (hypertrophy, endurance) can be controlled with slower tempos – allows muscle to stay under tension for longer periods ▪ Often expressed as – Eccentric : Isometric : Concentric (e.g. 4 : 1: 2) • Power – rate of work (maximal power, power endurance) o Olympians / Power lifters = Maximal Power ▪ Rates at which a person can generate maximal amount of force as quickly as possible for brief bursts (e.g. 2 sec) o General Public = Power Endurance ▪ Rates at which a person can generate sub-maximal amounts of force as quickly as possible for sustained periods (e.g. 45-60 sec) ▪ More relevant to ADL’s for mo
More Less

Related notes for ENS 401A

Log In


Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.