ENS 401A Lecture 7: Module 7 – Functional Training
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Department
Exercise And Nutritional Sciences
Course
ENS 401A
Professor
Fabio Comana
Semester
Spring

Description
Module 7 – Functional Training Program Design ➢ General Adaption Syndrome; Periodization; Programming Principles • Review: General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS) o Han’s Seyle model explains the physiological manner in which a body responds to stress stimulus ▪ Acute Stress – immediate “fight-or-flight” response (stimulus) ▪ Chronic Stress – adaptive responses that can be both healthy (continued training) and unhealthy (life stress) o 1 Phase: Shock or Alarm ▪ With training, individuals generally feel fatigued, weak, and sore initially ▪ Usually lasts a few days to perhaps one week o 2 Phase: Adaptation or Resistance ▪ If stressors persist – body will begin to adapt (or perish) ▪ Training – after shock phase, individuals witness gains • Weeks 1-3: neurological adaptations • Weeks 2-4: passive tissue strengthening (e.g. tendons) • Weeks 3-5: muscle adaptations begin (2-3 months in older adults) o 3 Phase: Exhaustion ▪ Depletion of body’s resources – unable to restore normal function • Compromises immune system function – increases potential for injury and illness • Referred to as overtraining (preceded by overreaching • Key Training Principles of Adaption, Progress, and Detraining o Principles of Overload ▪ Adaptations occur when muscles are exposed to intensities greater than those the muscle is accustomed o Principle of Specificity ▪ Adaptations are in direct response to the type of overload imposed ▪ SAID Principle – Specific Adaptations to Imposed Demands o Principle of Progression ▪ To safely apply overload, training intensity or volume must gradually increase over time o Principle of Reversibility ▪ Muscle detraining occurs when the stimulus is removed • Significant decreases in muscular strength (up to 50%) can occur within 4- 12 weeks of training cessation (1x/week can maintain most gains) o Principle of Diminishing Returns ▪ A genetic potential or ceiling effect, demonstrating lower returns with training • Continued adaption requires programs to constantly manipulate (progress) variables that reflect overload and specificity o Primary Variables: ▪ Volume (V) = amount of work (stabilization, endurance) ▪ Load (L) = intensity of work (strength, hypertrophy) ▪ Power (P) = rate of work (maximal power, power endurance) o Many other variables exist (components of, or independent of VLP) • Many of these outcomes are defined (distinguished) by how we manipulate the training variables o Mobilization Training or Stretching ▪ Goal: Improve range of motion or tissue extensibility (e.g. stretching) o Stabilization Endurance Training ▪ Goal: Improve movement efficiency and coordination ▪ Stabilization Training • Goal: Improve muscle’s capacity to control postural control or create efficient movement (e.g. core exercises) ▪ Endurance Training • Goal: Improve the muscle’s ability to work repeatedly and resist fatigue (e.g. push-ups, yoga) o Hypertrophy Training or Body Building ▪ Goal: Increase muscle mass or size o Strength Training ▪ Goal: Enhance the capacity for muscles to generate force (e.g. heavy lifting) o Power Endurance Training ▪ Goal: Improve rate of submaximal force generation + toning / shaping o Maximal Power Training ▪ Goal: Rate of maximal / near-maximal force generation (e.g. Olympics) • Periodization (Progression) Training o Defined: Method of alternating these training variables to produce peak performance at desired times while minimizing the potential for overtraining and injury ▪ Original models (Matveyev, Verkhoshansky, Siff) utilized strategic implementation of load and volume during specific training phases in a linear- type fashion to achieve peak performance o Traditional: Linear Periodization ▪ Legend • End = Endurance • Hyp = Hypertrophy • Hyp & St = Hypertrophy & Strength • St = Strength • Off = Offload o More Recent: Non-linear (Undulating) Periodization ▪ More frequent variations in load (intensity), volume and rate (power) – imposes varying levels of shock upon body • Induces metabolic shock – enables faster rapid-neuro endocrine adaptations • Requires monitoring of symptoms of exhaustion (overtraining) ➢ Applications of Periodization: Manipulating the Key Variables • Muscle adaptation requires different levels of each variable o Training Variables (More Influence) ▪ Intensity and volume ▪ Recovery interval (between sets) ▪ Recovery between subsequent training of same muscle groups ▪ Exercise selection ▪ Eccentric concentrations and tempo (TUT) ▪ Attaining point of failure ▪ Effects of steady-state cardio ▪ Inducing greater levels of hypoxia ▪ Cellular hydration ▪ Nutrition – pre-, peri- and post-protein o Non-Training Variables (Less Influence) ▪ Genetics (ectomorph, mesomorph, endomorph) ▪ Age and gender ▪ Hormonal levels and changes ▪ Training experience ▪ Upper vs. lower extremity growth ▪ Life – normal stress levels and activities ▪ Sleep quality / quantity o For adaptation, we ultimately need to induce: ▪ Mechanical Tension ▪ Muscle Damage ▪ Metabolic Stress • Load – amount of resistance or external load applied to muscles o Greater intensities = increased motor unit recruitment + force production – translate into strength and power o Same load consistently applied (e.g. body weight – yoga) = no muscle overload o Written as percentage of max weight lifted for one repetition (e.g. one rep max or 1RM) o Load is inversely proportional to repetitions ▪ Greater loads = few number of repetitions ▪ Lighter loads = greater number of repetitions • Volume – total amount of work performed o Generally expressed as Sets x number of Repetitions x TUT (optional) ▪ Example: 3 sets x 20 reps = volume of 60 reps ▪ Example: 2 sets x 12 reps x 4 seconds per rep = volume of 96 seconds of work o Total volume used should be dictated by training experience and training goals ▪ Volume progression (e.g. 3 sets x 12 reps = 4 sets x 10 reps) – 36 to 40 • Sets can be designed in many ways o Traditional Superset ▪ 2 sequentially-performed exercises targeting opposing muscle groups before taking a rest interval (e.g. agonist-antagonist) ▪ Example: chest-back o Compound Superset ▪ 2 sequentially-performed exercises targeting same muscle group before taking a rest interval ▪ Example: biceps-biceps o Pre-exhaustive Supersets ▪ Pre-fatiguing assistant muscles (synergists) to target prime mover exclusively Example: triceps / bench press o Linear-rotary Superset ▪ Sequentially performing a linear (more compound) exercise, followed immediately by a rotary (isolation) exercise before taking a rest interval ▪ Example: bench press / cable flyes o Cluster Sets ▪ Utilize built-in, short rest periods of 5-20 or so seconds ▪ Example: 10 sets x 4 reps o Hybrid Set ▪ Sequencing multiple exercises / directions or variations of exercises to flow in immediate succession before taking rest interval ▪ Example: mini-circuit – Db squat / Db curl / Db shoulder press, or multi-planar shoulder press • Time under tension (TUT) increases training volume – translates into muscle mass hypertrophy o Muscle is 20-40% stronger during eccentric phase – TUT in eccentric phase = stimulus for muscle growth (micro-tears + cellular swelling) ▪ Heavier loads (strength, power) require faster, more explosive tempos ▪ Moderate-to-lighter loads (hypertrophy, endurance) can be controlled with slower tempos – allows muscle to stay under tension for longer periods ▪ Often expressed as – Eccentric : Isometric : Concentric (e.g. 4 : 1: 2) • Power – rate of work (maximal power, power endurance) o Olympians / Power lifters = Maximal Power ▪ Rates at which a person can generate maximal amount of force as quickly as possible for brief bursts (e.g. 2 sec) o General Public = Power Endurance ▪ Rates at which a person can generate sub-maximal amounts of force as quickly as possible for sustained periods (e.g. 45-60 sec) ▪ More relevant to ADL’s for mo
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