ENS 434 Lecture 16: Module 11 – Behavioral Change – Action Phase
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8 Pages
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Department
Exercise And Nutritional Sciences
Course Code
ENS 434
Professor
Fabio Comana

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Module 11 – Behavioral Change – Action Phase ➢ Imagery • Using all or appropriate senses to create / recreate an experience in the mind o Process of recalling pieces from memory (experiences) and shaping pieces into meaningful images o Pieces and imagery should include all appropriate senses • Benefits of imagery o Enhance self-confidence (self-efficacy) – e.g. changing appearance o Improve motivation o Control emotional responses (e.g. build arousal, state of calm) and overall feelings / emotions o Improve concentration (attentional focus) o Enhance exercise technique • How Imagery Works o Psychoneuromuscular Theory ▪ Belief – vividly imagined events innervate muscles much like physical practice actually does – results in similar motor skill learning o Symbolic Learning Theory ▪ Belief – imagery functions as a coding system to help people understand and acquire movement patterns ▪ Develops a blueprint where individuals learn skills by becoming familiar with what needs to be done to successfully perform tasks o Bio-informational Theory ▪ Belief – an image is a functionally organized set of propositions stored in the brain ▪ Image description consists of two main types of statements • Stimulus propositions • Response propositions o Stimulus Propositions ▪ Statements that describe specific stimulus features of the scene to be imagined (i.e. help form / shape the image) e.g. noticing scenery while running o Response Propositions ▪ Statements that describe the imager’s physiological and affective (emotional) responses to particular situation; designed to produce physiological activity (i.e. part of the image) e.g. sensations like Db in your hand or HR in chest pounding in the image • Imagery Scripts should incorporate PETTLEP o Physical ▪ Mimic motor skills using physical movement o Environmental ▪ Mimic the environmental situation o Task ▪ Focus on same feelings / thoughts / actions that evoked in actual setting o Timing ▪ Perform / rehearse at real-time speed o Learning ▪ Image should match the physical stage learning (of learner) o Emotional ▪ Replicate the emotional state experienced in actual setting o Perspective ▪ Internal (1 person) – usually requires firsthand experience ▪ External (3 person) which considers immediate environment • How to Use Imagery? o Imagery Evaluation – first evaluate current use and efficacy of existing imagery ▪ Construct image – rate imagery in 7 areas ▪ Using 1-5 scale system (items #1-6 = nothing to clear-and-vivid; item #7 = no control to complete control) • How vividly you saw or visualized the image? • How clearly you heard the sounds? • How vividly you felt your body movements during the activity? • How clearly you were aware of your mood or felt your emotions of the situation? • How well you could see the image from inside your body? • How well you could see the image from outside your body? • How well you could control the image? ➢ Other Strategies • Premacking (David Premack): o Positive reinforcement that pairs unlikely behaviors with likely (more common) behaviors o Example: increase walking volume (an unlikely behavior) to the local bar rather than driving to counter sedentary lifestyle of individual who enjoys socializing with friends (a likely behavior) • Modeling: o Visually demonstrating action(s) to help learn individuals learn how to replicate behavior(s) o Learning new skills / improving existing skills (sometimes this guided imitation is more efficiently than verbal explanations o May include role playing to work through examples on how to change behavior(s) • Modeling Requirements: o Define desired behaviors ▪ Provide elaborate and detailed descriptions of desired behavior(s) – written form o Execute action ▪ Individual executes tasks – may include synchronous instruction to stop / freeze if task is performed incorrectly o Judge correct execution(s) ▪ Provide feedback of correct execution of task(s) with description(s) of what was done correctly – describe incorrect executions / provide feedback on what to improve o Model / imitate correct execution ▪ Talking and demonstrating correct execution (timing, sequencing, positioning) of task • Self-monitoring: o A systematic observation of target behaviors and tracking / recording observations (for feedback purposes) ▪ Journaling – effective method for tracking / recording • Also used to keep frequent notes on thoughts / feelings (without filters) o Helps create awareness and spark behavioral effort – key behavioral component for successful long-term lifestyle change o Self-monitoring helps sustain behaviors by ▪ Increasing the ability to use goals ▪ Improving commitment to change ▪ Increasing coping and feelings of control ▪ Improving understanding of eating / exercise patterns ▪ Improving information about, and focus on, the details ▪ Promoting more positive moods • Problem Solving o Problems = dilemmas without immediately-apparent solutions – causes increased stress ▪ Individuals often get “stuck” when encountering obstacles – may limit ability to follow through on actions o Resolution Sequence ▪ Step 1: General Orientation or Set • Acknowledge problem; recognize solutions are possible ▪ Step 2: Define the Problem • Be concrete and specific (not abstract and general); separate relevant from irrelevant details ▪ Step 3: Aggregate Alternatives • Brainstorm options and possible solutions ▪ Step 4: Decision Making • Anticipate paths and consequences (ones promoting greatest self-efficacy; have greatest ability) – find most realistic ▪ Step 5: Verification • Systematic approach (try once – evaluate experience and confidence of sustainability – repeat, etc. • Cognitive Behavioral Strategies with some Stages of Change o Precontemplation ▪ Recognizing a problem exists ▪ Journaling – ask client to journal (e.g. stress, moments of happiness) o Contemplation ▪ Journaling – identify any food- or health-related trends ▪ Problem (problem solving) – identify problem + generate a list of potential solutions ▪ Negative Thought Stopping (RET) – identify absolute or extreme words used frequently – consider changing words might improve well-being ▪ Identify schemas ▪ Imagery o Preparation ▪ Self-monitoring ▪ Decision making (problem solving) ▪ Determining how to combat negative thoughts (RET) ▪ Imagery ➢ EFI • Exercise-Induced Feeling Inventory (EFI) o You need to leverage any positive emotional or cognitive change associated with a desirable behavior for adherence-support purposes ▪ Crit
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