ENS 438 Lecture 32: CTE & Concussions

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San Diego State University
Exercise And Nutritional Sciences
ENS 438

Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy (CTE) & Concussions ❖ Knowledge ➢ What do we know and why? ➢ Accidental diagnosis ➢ Investigative journalism ❖ Conflicts in Study ➢ “I wish I never met Mike Webster. CTE has driven me into the politics of science, the politics of the NFL. You can’t go against the NFL. They will squash you.” - Dr. Bennet Omalu ❖ Linked to Success Ideology ➢ Who wins and what are the costs? ➢ Pathology is sociological ➢ Signs and symptoms extend to many parts of our socioeconomic world ❖ Fandom ➢ Are you not entertained? ➢ CTE in popular culture: Concussion the Movie ❖ Agency vs. Paternalism ➢ Do we need to care for those who cannot care for themselves? ➢ Who decides? ❖ Rooted in Market-Based Sport ➢ Commercial sports exists for fan’s benefits and the product for consumption is also human ➢ Why do we need to consume human contact but not the effects of human suffering? ❖ Lack of Resources ➢ Lack of established guidelines ■ How do you know when someone is concussed? ➢ Challenges in language or “how do we talk about one’s bell rung or cracking one’s skull?” ■ “Mild TBI” ?? ❖ What are Concussions? ➢ A complex physiological process where there is a blow to the head and damage to the brain ■ Can cause physical pain, memory loss, emotional trauma among other symptoms ➢ Usually known as a traumatic brain injury ➢ Effect of the trauma occurs depends on the severity, location, and number of the blow(s) ➢ CTE is based on multiple concussive or concussive-type blows over extended periods ❖ Effects of Concussions ➢ Diffuse axonal injury, microbleeds and glial activation, all of which may be sources of biomarkers ➢ Athletes have a feeling of being confused as a result ➢ Reflective pathologies include chronic traumatic encephalopathy, substance abuse, and depression ➢ Concussion impacts can last from 30 days to 30 years ➢ Repeated impacts (concussions) result in significantly increased effects ➢ Athlete’s report they feel confused at the moment of impact ■ Neurons are impacted… and for a period after that ❖ Where Do Concussions Occur Among Athletes? ➢ Reports state that high school athletes are statistically prone to higher concussion rates than other prep sports ■ Sports include boy’s hockey and football and girl’s soccer ➢ 41.2% of soccer (combined) ➢ 55% of hockey ➢ 26% of basketball ➢ 29.8% of football athletes ❖ Concussion Symptoms ➢ Cognitive ➢ Emotional
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