Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy (CTE) & Concussions
➢ What do we know and why?
➢ Accidental diagnosis
➢ Investigative journalism
❖ Conflicts in Study
➢ “I wish I never met Mike Webster. CTE has driven me into the politics of science,
the politics of the NFL. You can’t go against the NFL. They will squash you.” - Dr.
❖ Linked to Success Ideology
➢ Who wins and what are the costs?
➢ Pathology is sociological
➢ Signs and symptoms extend to many parts of our socioeconomic world
➢ Are you not entertained?
➢ CTE in popular culture: Concussion the Movie
❖ Agency vs. Paternalism
➢ Do we need to care for those who cannot care for themselves?
➢ Who decides?
❖ Rooted in Market-Based Sport
➢ Commercial sports exists for fan’s benefits and the product for consumption is
➢ Why do we need to consume human contact but not the effects of human
❖ Lack of Resources
➢ Lack of established guidelines
■ How do you know when someone is concussed?
➢ Challenges in language or “how do we talk about one’s bell rung or cracking
■ “Mild TBI” ??
❖ What are Concussions?
➢ A complex physiological process where there is a blow to the head and damage
to the brain
■ Can cause physical pain, memory loss, emotional trauma among other
➢ Usually known as a traumatic brain injury
➢ Effect of the trauma occurs depends on the severity, location, and number of the
➢ CTE is based on multiple concussive or concussive-type blows over extended
❖ Effects of Concussions
➢ Diffuse axonal injury, microbleeds and glial activation, all of which may be
sources of biomarkers ➢ Athletes have a feeling of being confused as a result
➢ Reflective pathologies include chronic traumatic encephalopathy, substance
abuse, and depression
➢ Concussion impacts can last from 30 days to 30 years
➢ Repeated impacts (concussions) result in significantly increased effects
➢ Athlete’s report they feel confused at the moment of impact
■ Neurons are impacted… and for a period after that
❖ Where Do Concussions Occur Among Athletes?
➢ Reports state that high school athletes are statistically prone to higher
concussion rates than other prep sports
■ Sports include boy’s hockey and football and girl’s soccer
➢ 41.2% of soccer (combined)
➢ 55% of hockey
➢ 26% of basketball
➢ 29.8% of football athletes
❖ Concussion Symptoms