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Lecture 3

OCEAN 320 Lecture 3: Unit 3B.2Premium

5 pages19 viewsSummer 2018

Department
Oceanography
Course Code
OCEAN 320
Professor
K.Robinson
Lecture
3

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Unit 3B:
Shifting Baselines in the Surf (video)
Baselines: reference point from the past; conditions as they were in a pristine world
o Shifting baselines: when we lose track of those reference points and readjust to
create new ones
o Process behind the slow incremental change of our oceans as affected by humans
Sea water used to be cleaner, now surfers need Hep A shots to prevent from disease;
frequent beach closing days
Beach health at 90%, should be 100%
Low impact development necessary to help reverse effects
Emptied Oceans (Video)
1958: raft 18x24 foot raft sailed from Redondo Beach, CA to Hawaii
o Saw many fish and variety of fish; mahi-mahi, sharks, etc
o Ate plankton to supplement died
2008: raft built of junk moves from CA to Hawaii
o Saw very few fish, only one shark (2 foot mako)
o Couldn’t eat plankton bc it was contaminated with plastic
Shifting Baselines in the Sound
Shifting baselines occur when we lose track of the original conditions of our
environment, we allow baseline to shift
Puget Sound
o Depleted resources; less than 10% of their original stocks of salmon
o 92% of shellfish beaches closed due to human sewage/biotoxins/under advisory
o Orcas now washing up dead, so contaminated they they are prohibited from burial
anywhere besides hazardous waste disposal site
o Can detect caffeine, cinnamon, vanilla in water bc of high levels of human waste
contamination
o Decline of seabirds; puffins in huge decline
o Projected to grow in population, which will lead to decrease in habitat for animals
o Damage is reversible…for now
Tuna Fishing and Canning
cargo space for 175 tons of fish in refrigerators; grinds finely crushed ice into refrigerated
cargo space for fish
tuna prefer warm southern waters (in this example, San Diego)
caught with barbless hooks at end of piano wire leaders attached to bamboo poles
o bounded with feathers to look like sardines in the water
o follow birds looking for sardines; where birds are tuna will also be
o have live sardines on boat; toss them over gradually to attract tuna
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o tuna tossed onto boat and barbless hook is released, and thrown back for another
o tuna immediately packed on ice once they reach the desk of the boat
Tuna Wars
Indian ocean: environmentalists fighting with fisheries about damage to fish stocks and
habitats
South Madagascar: locals can no longer catch enough fish for their populations and fish
they do catch are much smaller
o Suspect that large boats are fishing their waters at night
Indian Ocean
o 25% of world’s tuna caught in Indian oceans
o Rampant illegal fishing is depleting tuna stock
Greenpeace monitors Indian ocean; monitor illegal foreign fishing fleets
o Depleted stocks mean that local fishermen miss out
o Hoping to document transfers from small fishing fleets to large refrigerated boats
(reefers) out on high seas (known as transshipments)
Legal, but unsustainable
o Tuna Queen
Receives estimated 1 transshipment per day
Have transshipment license
Not illegal, but Greenpeace is concerned with means for finding fish and
whether fish was caught legally
Need a scheme of traceability
Ship management only documents type of fish and amount of them; not
who they obtained it from or how
o Theft and underreporting happens to often it’s too hard to truly estimate the health
of the populations
Occurs either in huge amounts, illegally, caught, caught in illegal locations
Must record and document those interfering/engaging in potentially illegal
practices
o Fleet that sells to Tuna Queen: Philippine ship unequipped with fishing gear
Greenpeace suspects that Tuna Queen isn’t a fishing boat, just collecting
fish from other fleets and claiming them as their own
Once transshipped, illegal obtainment goes undocumented/unnoticed
o Track vessels by transmission signal, but cannot always track smaller fishing
fleets since transmission is voluntary
Filipino delegate refuses to answer questions about vessels
o South Korean vessel investigated by Greenpeace
Recently paid 2 million to Iberian govt over alleged illegal fishing activity
o EU pressures fleets from smaller countries to sign unfair contracts, leaving local
fisherman fighting for leftovers
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