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Lecture 2

PHIL 102 Lecture 2: Philosophy 102 Lecture: Arguments - Validity, Soundness

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PHIL 102

Inductive and Deductive Arguments What makes them sound What makes them Valid or Invalid Philosophy 102 Lecture Notes Inductive Argument: Designed so that if all the premises are true, then conclusion is likely to be true or probably true. Generalization Deductive Argument: Designed so that if all the premises are true, then the conclusion is guaranteed to be true (designed to be valid). Deduction: EitherOr Arguments = Dysjunction Argument By Analogy Increasing the of similarities increases likelihood of conclusion a has F, G, and H b has F, G, and H a has J b has J All As are Bs Universal Syllogism (Valid not Sound) All Bs are Cs All As are Cs If P, then Q Hypothetical Syllogism (Valid) If Q, then R If P, then R GOD Believing for psychological, cultural, personal, reasons St. Thomas Aquinas (12251274) Aristotle (384322 BCE) The Four Causes What is it? What type of thing is it? Formal Cause What is it made of? Material Cause What is its purpose? Whats it for? Final Cause What produced it? What brought it about? Efficient Cause (1) There is a series of past causes
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