PHIL 110 Lecture Notes - Lecture 2: Dependent And Independent Variables, Naturalistic Observation, Random Assignment

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7 Feb 2017
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Process for research
Develop a question
Hypothesis
Design study and collect data
Analyze the data and draw conclusions
Publish the findings
Ask new question, start over
Types of research designs
Descriptive
Correlational
Experimental
Versions of descriptive research
Case study - can be over generalized
Naturalistic observation - real world environment, lack
control, might not be totally real when someone is
watching
Surveys - aka self report measures, info straight from
source, people could lie or exaggerate especially with
hard questions, inexpensive, lots of data, quickly,
generalized sample for population
Correlational - looking for relationships between / among
different variables, cannot show causation, can be 3rd
variables
Variables are NOT manipulated by researcher like they
would be in an experiment
Correlation coefficient [r] - measures extent to which
variations in one variable are accompanied by increases
or decreases in a second variable [need to know how to
interpret, but not calculate]
Indicates strength and direction of relationship
between two variables
Numerical value between 0 and 1, 0 meaning no
association
For strength, take absolute value
Positive correlation, both things go up [ex. High
school GPA to high college GPA] and negative
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