BIOL 102 Lecture Notes - Lecture 3: Immunoglobulin A, Pentamer, Macrophage

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Published on 16 Jan 2018
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Unit 3 Notes
Human Anatomy Part 1
Tissues, Digestive System, Circulatory System, Immune System
July 10, 2017
Animal tissue types
o Epithelial
Terminology
Number of cell layers
o Simple
o Stratified
Shape of cells
o Squamous
o Cuboidal
o Columnar
Function
Absorption
Secretion
o Connective
Types
Bone
Cartilage
Fibrous connective tissue
Blood
Adipose tissue
o Nerve
Neuron
Axon
Dendrite
Myelin sheath
Nodes of Ranvier
Neurotransmitters
o Muscle
Types
Skeletal
o Striated
o Voluntary
Smooth
o Non-striated
o Involuntary
Cardiac
o Striated
o Involuntary
July 11, 2017
Digestive System
o Humans are omnivores
Most omnivorous animal
Eat pretty much anything
Contributed to evolutionary success
o Mechanical digestion
Tearing food apart
Biting, grinding into smaller pieces
Not breaking chemical bonds
o Chemical digestion
Usually involved enzymes
o Review of relative biochemistry
Carbohydrates
Monosaccharides- monomers
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o Glucose- C6H12O6
Disaccharides
o Sucrose
o Lactose
o Maltose
Polysaccharides
o Starch
o Glycogen
o Cellulose (plant fiber)
Proteins
Amino acids
Lipids
Triglycerides
o Glycerol
o Fatty acids
Cholesterol
Nucleic acids
Nucleotides
o Gross anatomy of
Mouth
Salivary glands
o Saliva
Water
Mucus
Mechanical aspect of digestion
Makes it easier to swallow
o Salivary amylase
First digestive enzyme in process
Breaks down starches to disaccharides
Denatured by stomach acid
Works better if you eat slow
o Lysozymes
All purpose enzymes
Kill bacteria in the mouth
Teeth
o Incisors- used for cutting
o Canines- used for tearing and shredding
o Molars- used for grinding and crushing
Esophagus
Pharynx- common chamber of esophagus and trachea
o Epiglottis- prevents food from going down the wrong way
Larynx
Respiratory tract runs parallel
Peristalsis moves food down esophagus to stomach
o Contraction of smooth muscle
Stomach
Gastric juice
o HCl
o Pepsin- proteolytic enzyme, breaks down proteins
o Line of immunity with the low pH
Cardiac (esophageal) sphincter at top of stomach
Pyloric sphincter at bottom of the stomach
Small intestine
Enzymes
o Lactase
o Sucrose
o Maltase
Absorption
o Villi
Increase surface area of SI
Extensions of lymphatic system and circulatory system
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End products of all organic molecules besides fats are passed from wall
of SI to the circulatory system
Fats go into the lymphatic system first and then the circulatory system
o Hepatic portal circulation
Carries nutrient rich blood to liver
Liver extracts all compounds and controls what is released back into
normal circulationprevents change in osmotic pressure and pH
Most of chemical digestion and absorption of nutrients occurs here
Pancreas (exocrine gland)
Pancreatic enzymes- break down carbs, lipids, proteins, nucleic acids
o Pancreatic amylase
Breaks down almost all starch in food
o Lipase
Breaks down lipids
o Trypsin
Breaks down proteins
o Chymotrypsin
Breaks down proteins
o Carboxypeptidase
Breaks down proteins
Cuts off carboxyl group from amino acids
o Aminopeptidase
Mainly comes from SI
o DNA and RNA nucleases
o Pancreatic juice- bicarbonate, raises pH
Gall bladder
Bile- important for digestion of fats
o Produced by liver
o Stored in gall bladder
o Secreted in SI
Large intestine = ~ 3 ft
Bacterial action produces
o Precursors to Vitamin B
o Vitamin K
Excess water is absorbed here
Collects undigestable fiber, etc. to excrete
July 12, 2017
Circulatory System
o 2 major trends in evolution of circulatory systems
Closed circulatory system
o Had to be revised as animals moved to land
o Internal transport in invertebrates
Gastrovacscular cavities
Cnidaria
Open circulatory systems
Arthropoda
Mollusca
Closed
Annelid
o Vertebrate cardiovascular systems
Components
Heart
o Composed of 1+ artia or ventricles
o Blood vessels
Arteries
Veins
Capillaries
Comparative anatomy
Fish
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