BIOL 102 Lecture Notes - Lecture 2: Trichinella, Intestinal Parasite Infection, Taenia Solium

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16 Jan 2018
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Unit 2 Notes
Plant Kingdom, Animal Kingdom
June 29, 2017
Plant Kingdom
o Multicellular
o Eukaryotic
o Autotrophic
o ~ 300,000 species
o Began to transition to land about 425 MYA
o Photosynthesis drives life on earth
6 CO2 + 6 H2O C6H12O6 + 6 O2
Carbon dioxide + water glucose + oxygen
o Botany- Greek for “plants” but derived from a verb “to feed”
o Plant roles
Food
Clothing fiber
Wood
Paper
Spices
Drugs
Oxygen
Aesthetics
o Transgenic plants- genetically engineered
Have created entirely new functions for plants
Examples
Disease resistant strains
Production of vaccine and other molecules
Resistance to freezing
Tolerance of high salt soil
Production of higher levels of vitamins and nutrients
o General characteristics and evolution
Chloroplasts
Chlorophyll A, B
Other yellow and orange pigments
To help capture sun’s energy
Modern land plants seem to have evolved from green algaehave same
pigments
Plant cell walls composed of cellulose
Plants store carbs as starch
Nearly all reproduce sexually
Alternation of generation
Gametophyte stage
o Haploid
o Gamete producing
Sporophyte stage
o Diploid
o Spore producing
Bryophytes
o Have a large, obvious gametophyte stage
o Other plants have a larger sporophyte stage and gametophyte
stage has been reduced
4 major adaptations
Evolution of vascular tissue (xylem and phloem)
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Spore production as means of reproduction
o Diversification of vascular plants, ~ 400 MYA
Origin of seed producing plants, 360 MYA
Evolution of flowering plants, 130 MYA
o Basic vocabulary
Vascular tissue- plant tissues that consist of cells that transport water and
nutrients throughout the plant body
Xylem- vascular tissue that carries water and minerals from the roots to
the rest of the plant
Phloem- vascular tissue that carries sugar and organic nutrients (sap)
throughout the plant
Gametophyte- multicellular, haploid state of the life cycle that produces haploid
gametes that fuse to form the diploid sporophyte
Sporophyte- multicellular, diploid stage of the life cycle that produces haploid
gametes that become the gametophyte (through meiosis)
Major Plant
Group
Examples
Vascular
Tissue?
Sporophyte or
Gametophyte?
Reproduction
Fertilization
Method
Seed/Spore
Dispersal
Bryophytes
(Mosses)
Mosses,
liverworts,
hornworts
Nonvascular
Gametophyte
dominant
Spores
Water
Water/wind
Spores
Ferns
Ferns,
psilotum
(whisk
fern),
lycopodium,
equisetum
(horsetails)
Vascular
Sporophyte
dominant
Spores
Water
Water/ wind
Spores
Gymnosperms
Conifers,
gingko,
cycads
Vascular
Sporophyte
dominant
Seeds
Wind
Pollination
Wind
Seeds
Angiosperms
Flowering
plants,
grasses,
hardwoods
Vascular
Sporophyte
dominant
Seeds
Wind,
Animals
Flowers
Wind,
Animals
Fruits
Seeds
Relatives of the 4 Major Plant Groups
o Nonvascular plants
Division bryophyta (true mosses)
Liverworts- diminutive plants with lobed bodies
o Life cycle similar to mosses
o Can reproduce asexually by gemmae (dispersed when rain falls
into their protective cups)
Hornworts- resemble liverworts but have horn-shaped sporophyte stage
Mosses
o Peat moss
o Bod people
Characteristics
o Non-vascular
o Waxy cuticle on their leaf-like structures
o Gametangia
Antheridium (male)
Archegonium (female)
Egg is fertilized and protected within the
archegonium and the sporophyte (diploid stage)
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grows out of body of gametophyte (haploid
stage)
Where the gametes develop
o Absorb water by diffusion and capillary action
Limited to shady, moist habitats
Limited to small body size
Structure
o Gametophyte stage (green and leafy)
Rhizoid
Antheridia
Archogonia
o Sporophyte stage (spore-producing sporangium)
Sporangium (capsule)
Seta
Foot
o Vascular plants
Ferns
Characteristics
o Large sporophyte stage
o Widely distributed in tropics and temperate regions
o Fronds have sori (clusters of spores) on the underside
o Many fronds grow from underground horizontal stem (rhizome)
Relatives
o Whiskferns
Lack true roots and leaves
Genus psilotum
Have rhizomes
Body plant is similar to earliest vascular plants
o Club mosses (ground pines)
Genus lycopodium and sellaginella
Borne on sporophylls (fern leaves specialized fro
reproduction)
Gametophyte stage is inconspicuous and develops
underground
o Horsetails
Genus equisetum
Formerly called scouring rush
Glassy texture made them useful for scrubbing
pots and pans
Large sporophyte stage
Silica in epidermal cells
Gives glassy texture
Gametophyte stage is small
Photosynthetic
Free-living
Importance of ferns
o Coal
o Global warming
Gymnosperms
Conifers
o Examples
Pines (lumber and pulp)
Bristlecone pine is oldest organism alive (4600
YO)
Spruce
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