BIOL 102 Lecture Notes - Lecture 5: Maltase, Prostate, Egg Cell

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16 Jan 2018
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Biology 102 Unit 4 and 5 Lecture Outlines
Human Anatomy and Physiology Part I (Unit 4)
ANIMAL TISSUES
I. Animal Tissue Types
A. Epithelial
B. Connective
C. Nerve
D. Muscle
II. Epithelial Tissue
A. Epithelial Tissue terminology
1. # Cell Layers
a. Simple
b. Stratified
2. Shape
a. squamous
b. cuboidal
c. columnar
B. Epithelial Tissue Function
1. Absorption
2. Secretion
III. Connective Tissue
A. Types
1. Bone - osteocytes
2. Cartilage - chondrocytes
3. Fibrous connective tissue
4. Loose connective tissue
5. Blood
6. Adipose tissue
B. Connective Tissue Functions
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IV. Nerve Tissue
A. Neuron - axon, dendrite, myelin sheath, nodes of Ranvier,
neurotransmitters
B. Nervous tissue functions
V. Muscle Tissue
A. Types
1. skeletal - striated, voluntary
2. smooth - non-striated, involuntary
3. cardiac - striated, involuntary
B. Muscle tissue functions
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Circulatory System
Circulation and Gas Exchange
Organisms must exchange various compounds with their environment such
as oxygen, nutrients, and metabolic wastes. For small animals with a high
surface area/ volume ratio, simple diffusion can satisfy most of the
transport needs. For larger animals special systems evolved for the internal
transport of body fluids.
Internal Transport In Invertebrates
a. gastrovascular cavities (Cnidaria)
b. open circulatory systems (Arthropoda/ Mollusca (Bivalvia)
c. closed circulatory systems (Annelida)
d. cardiovascular systems (Vertebrates)
Vertebrate Cardiovascular Systems
A. Components
1. heart - composed of one or more atria and one or more ventricles
2. blood vessels - arteries, veins, capillaries
B. Comparative anatomy
1. fish - 2-chambered heart, single circulatory loop
2. amphibian - 3-chambered heart (2 atria, 1 ventricle), double circulatory
loop
a. systemic - body
b. pulmonary - lungs and skin
3. reptiles - partially divided ventricle
4. birds and mammals - 4-chambered heart (2 atria, 2 ventricles), double
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