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Lecture 2

CRJU 351 Lecture 2: CRJU 351 - Exam 2

29 Pages
40 Views
Fall 2015

Department
Criminology and Criminal Justice
Course Code
CRJU 351
Professor
Anderson
Lecture
2

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Family and Delinquency 09/15/2015
Theories of families influence
Strain
oFamily structure changes may represent a stressful event
Ex. Divorce, remarriage, death of a family member
Social control
oFamily structure is important because it represents a
difference or chance in formal and informal controls in the
family
Ex. In some situations, parents are less effective at
parenting
Feminist criminological theories
oFocus on lack of resources that accompany certain family
structures
Ex. The decrease in financial resources following a
divorce
Family structure research (what the data says)
Intact biological families vs. non-intact
oMixed results
Two-parent families vs. one-parent families
oMixed results
oMore strongly correlated with “official” delinquency than “self-
report” delinquency
More correlated with kids getting arrested and ending
up in the juvenile justice system
They are more likely to get caught
oStronger predictor of male delinquency than female
Intact biological vs. single parent families vs. stepfamilies
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oMixed results
oVery little effect on self-reported delinquency
Conclusion:
oNot finding strong evidence that family structure causes
delinquency
Then what does consistently predict delinquency?
More complicated issues within the family
Family processes
Issues within the family predict delinquency
Meta-analysis (all studies combined into one)
o(Of family factors as predictors of delinquency)
oStrongest predictors
Parental education
Parental supervision
Childrearing skills
Parental discord (conflict)
Family size
oWeakest predictors
Young parents
“Broken homes”
Socioeconomic status
Attachment
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oLevels of attachment to the family have been successfully
linked to delinquency
Less attachment = more delinquency
Variations
Attachment to mothers is more important than
attachment to fathers
More important = more predictive of
delinquency
Attachment is more important if the parent and
child are of the same sex
Boys – need to be attached to their mothers
and fathers
Girls – need to only be attached to their
mothers
It seems only to matter how much children are
attached to their parents
Not the other way around
oIt does not matter how much the
parent is attached to the child
Crime runs in families
oCriminal and antisocial parents tend to have delinquent and
antisocial children
oExample:
Pittsburg Youth Study
1,500 males age 7 to 30 were studied
Found arrests of family members predicted boys’
delinquency
All family members (even grandparents)
predicted this
Arrests of fathers was the most important
predictor
Why?
1. Families are exposed to the same risk
factors
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Description
Family and Delinquency 15:58 Theories of families influence Strain Family structure changes may represent a stressful event Ex. Divorce, remarriage, death of a family member Social control Family structure is important because it represents a difference or chance in formal and informal controls in the family Ex. In some situations, parents are less effective at parenting Feminist criminological theories Focus on lack of resources that accompany certain family structures Ex. The decrease in financial resources following a divorce Family structure research (what the data says) Intact biological families vs. non-intact Mixed results Two-parent families vs. one-parent families Mixed results More strongly correlated with “official” delinquency than “self-report” delinquency More correlated with kids getting arrested and ending up in the juvenile justice system They are more likely to get caught Stronger predictor of male delinquency than female Intact biological vs. single parent families vs. stepfamilies Mixed results Very little effect on self-reported delinquency Conclusion: Not finding strong evidence that family structure causes delinquency Then what does consistently predict delinquency? More complicated issues within the family Family processes Issues within the family predict delinquency Meta-analysis (all studies combined into one) (Of family factors as predictors of delinquency) Strongest predictors Parental education Parental supervision Childrearing skills Parental discord (conflict) Family size Weakest predictors Young parents “Broken homes” Socioeconomic status Attachment Levels of attachment to the family have been successfully linked to delinquency Less attachment = more delinquency Variations Attachment to mothers is more important than attachment to fathers More important = more predictive of delinquency Attachment is more important if the parent and child are of the same sex Boys – need to be attached to their mothers and fathers Girls – need to only be attached to their mothers It seems only to matter how much children are attached to their parents Not the other way around It does not matter how much the parent is attached to the child Crime runs in families Criminal and antisocial parents tend to have delinquent and antisocial children Example: Pittsburg Youth Study 1,500 males age 7 to 30 were studied Found arrests of family members predicted boys’ delinquency All family members (even grandparents) predicted this Arrests of fathers was the most important predictor Why? 1. Families are exposed to the same risk factors Being trapped in a cycle of poverty Living in a deprived neighborhood Crappy parenting skills being passed down 2. People tend to live with and marry people who are like themselves Offenders and risk takers are more likely to marry people who are also offenders or who are also partaking in risky behavior 3. Children are learning poor behavior from parents Monkey see – monkey do 4. Low levels of supervision Parents partaking in criminal behavior may be less likely to supervise their children 5. Genetic mechanism Biosocial theories focus on how genetic potential interacts with environment 6. Behavior isn’t any different, but the family is watched closer by law enforcement The behavior of the kids may be more likely to come to the attention of the police Family size Having a large number of children in the family predicts both self-reported and official delinquency Why? 1. Parents who have more children have a harder time paying attention to each child individually # of children increase = attention decreases 2. The youngest children are going to be more likely to learn the possibly delinquent behavior of the older children at younger and younger ages 3. Overcrowding When homes are crowded, tension is more common Ex. Study found that 2 rooms to every child is required Child-rearing methods Much harder to accurately measure Most important: Supervision Extensively researched and linked to delinquency Usually the strongest predictor of offending 2 types of supervision: Direct A parent is either with the child or has direct knowledge of what the child is doing Indirect A parent knows the child’s friends, teachers, etc. Parents report higher levels of supervision than children The truth is probably somewhere in the middle Discipline Refers to how parents react to a child’s behavior Research shows that if a youth experiences harsh discipline or erratic/inconsistent discipline he/she is more likely to engage in delinquency Inconsistency can be from one parents or from both One – sometimes they are strict, sometimes they don’t care Two – one parent is very strict, the other lets the child do whatever they want Effects of corporal punishment Relationship to delinquency is very complicated African American children are more likely to be physically punished as children Warmth/concern White children who are physically punished are more likely to become delinquent Cold/rejecting It may not be the punishment itself that correlates with delinquency, but rather the attitude that accompanies it Warmth Parental warmth is a protective factor against the effects of physical punishment Involvement Low parental involvement is correlated with delinquency Poor communication is as well Child abuse and neglect Increases risk of delinquency Predicts later self-reported and official delinquency/crime Child maltreatment that persists into adolescence is the most damaging Effects: Brain damages as the brain develops Bodily changes that may lead to being desensitized Poor coping mechanisms Conflict Most researchers have found a link between family conflict and delinquency Includes: Intermarital conflict Level of conflict between parents and children Level of conflict between siblings Living in a house where there is a lot of fighting is more likely to cause delinquency Conflict involving parents (between parents or between parents and children) is the most predictive Examples of effective programs (proactive > reactive) Home visitation programs Done right at birth, even sometimes before birth Trained healthcare professionals help new mothers With the baby, breastfeeding, making the transition to parenthood Not explicitly a delinquency prevention program Early childhood education Preschool Encourages education, participation, and learning Has an effect on future education, even up until college Not explicitly a delinquency prevention program Parent training interventions Help parents manage parenting Help set limits, encourage monitoring, help to encourage bonding and attachment Intensive family therapy for young offenders Specifically for youth that are already committing delinquency Help to reduce recidivism Sometimes it also targets peer and environmental influences Children of incarcerated parents Parents in prison In 2007, approximately 2.3% of all children under the age of 18 had an incarcerated parent in state or federal prison Does not include general jail 1 in 25 children in 2012 The incarceration rate has increased significantly, especially during the 1980’s and 1990’s The majority of inmates report having children who are minors 52% in state facilities 63% in federal facilities Possible that some inmates did not report for personal reasons Female inmates are more likely than male inmates are more likely to have children who are minors at the time of their incarceration Not all children are effected equally While 2.3% as a group have an incarcerated parent (2007 data) 0.9% = white children 6.7% = black children 2.4% = latino/a children Mother vs. father When a father is incarcerated, the majority of children live with their mother/other parent When a mother is incarcerated, it is much less common for the child to live with the father 1/3 live with father Many live with grandparents, siblings, or are placed in the foster care system 79% with grandparent/relative 10% in foster homes Impact of having an incarcerated parent Children of incarcerated parents face challenging circumstances They are more likely to: Live with someone who abuses drugs Experience physical and sexual abuse Move around more Live in poverty Live in single-parent households Live with inadequately educated caregivers Witness domestic violence Exhibit emotional and behavior problems Serious long-term effects: Exhibit negative emotions: Trauma Anxiety Guilt Sadness Shame Fear Negative life effects: Drop in school performance Trouble sleeping Trouble concentrating Missing more school Elevated risk of becoming involved in the juvenile justice system Neighborhoods and Delinquency 15:58 Social structure/sociological theories Neighborhoods and Delinquency 15:58 Focus on social and economic forces (beyond the individual) Disorganization Chronic unemployment Poverty Cultural values Strain theory and social disorganization theory Both propose that disorder and malintegration are conducive to crime (of groups as a whole) Stable, organized, and integrated societies vs. disorganized societies Stable Cohesive Conducive to a good lifestyle Disorganized More conducive to offending Disruptive Social control breaks down Merton’s (regular) strain theory Purpose: Explain rates of crime in lower-class urban areas, among lower class and minority groups, and overall American crime rates Background Durkheim’s anomie Neighborhoods and Delinquency 15:58 State of normlessness A lack of social regulation in modern society Ex. Hurricane Katrina Merton’s anomie Adapted Durkheim’s concept to criminology The disparity between success goals and access to legitimate means to attain those goals The sick society Anomie occurs when there is an imbalance between culturally-approved goals and institutional means Goals: Education Financial gain Family Institutional means: Ex. To financial gain Being able to get promotions in work Education to make more money When access to certain means aren’t there naturally for certain people, they adapt by achieving these goals by whatever means necessary Ex. Things you wouldn’t tell your mom about Deviance typology Conformity Accept cultural goals, accept institutionalized means Neighborhoods and Delinquency 15:58 What society expects Vast majority of people Hope that it is going to pay off Innovation Accept cultural goals, reject institutionalized means Vast majority of offenders Attain wealth through ways that are not accepted Either don’t believe in the law or they don’t have access to the means to attain wealth Ritualism Reject cultural goals, accept institutional means These individuals don’t want wealth They either don’t care if it pays off or they don’t think it will They still work hard and follow societies acceptable pathways because they believe that they “are supposed to” Retreatism Reject cultural goals, reject institutionalized means They don’t want wealth and they don’t do what they think “they are supposed to do” Usually those partaking in substance abuse Heavily addicted to drugs/alcohol Rebellion New means, new goals Rebels who work outside of the established system Neighborhoods and Delinquency 15:58 Ex. Groups that want to overthrow the government Popular culture The Wire Bubbles and Johnny Johnny Still a retreatist Rips guy on ladder off to get money for drugs Bubbles Trying to become an innovator/conformist Wants to become a snitch for the cops Breaking bad Walter is trying to reach the goal of taking care of his family But because he has cancer, teaching isn’t cutting it He sells meth in order to get this money Other examples: Dexter Weeds Social disorganization theory Pioneered in the 1920’s and 1930’s by Chicago School (U of Chicago) psychologists Especially Shaw and McKay Chicago in the early 1900’s Neighborhoods and Delinquency 15:58 Industrialization More people 4,500 people in 1840 1.7 million in 1890 Immigration also contributed to this 35% of the city was born outside of the US With the population growth came
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