EXSC 224 Lecture 6: Lecture 6 - 9/6

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University of South Carolina
Exercise Science
EXSC 224

● Cerebral Hemisphere ○ Frontal lobe ■ Everything anterior to central sulcus ■ One of the newest parts of the brain ■ Tied into motor functions & memory ■ NO SENSORY INPUT DIRECTLY TO FRONTAL LOBE ○ Parietal lobe ■ PURE SENSORY ■ Tactile senses - pain, temperature, touch ○ Occipital lobe ■ Vision is initially recognized ■ Goes from parieto-occipital sulcus to transverse cerebral fissure ○ Temporal lobe - auditory ● Gyri - ridges ○ Gyri of insula - associated with taste/ gustatory ■ “The 5th lobe” ■ NOT superficial, it is deep inside the brain, you can separate it from the temporal lobe ○ Gyrus is singular, 2+ = gyri ○ Exposed cortex, a region that is separated by a sulcus or fissure ○ When the brain folds, we see a remarkably similar gyri (folds) in each person ● Sulci - shallow grooves ○ Central sulcus ■ Anterior is the precentral gyrus ■ Posterior is the postcentral gyrus ■ Differentiates frontal from parietal ○ Lateral sulcus ● Fissures - deep grooves ○ Longitudinal fissure - separates right and left hemispheres ■ Right - Controls/ receives from left side of body ■ Left - Controls/ receives from right side of body ○ Transverse cerebral fissure - separates cerebellum from cerebrum ● Functional areas of the cerebral cortex - all areas are involved in conscious thought ○ Motor areas - control voluntary movement ○ Sensory areas - conscious awareness of sensation ○ Association areas - integrate diverse information ● Conscious behavior involves the entire cortex ● Primary motor cortex ○ Directly anterior to central sulcus ■ Makes up the precentral gyrus ○ Neurons descend down into spinal cord and synapse onto a neuron to stimulate muscle ○ Upper motor neurons (pre synaptic) - reside solely in the CNS ■ Largest neurons in the body ○ No conscious decision to cause these neurons to spontaneously activate ○ Large pyramidal cells of the precentral gyri ○ Long axon - pyramidal (corticospinal) tracts ○ Allows conscious control of precise, skilled, voluntary movements ○ Motor homunculi - upside-down caricatures representing the motor innervation of body regions ■ Know this map/ understand ■ Where body parts exist ■ “Where are the toes?” ● Medial inferior ■ “Where are the hips?” ● Superior medial ■ Know which ones are lateral, lateral inferior, superior, lateral superior, medial superior, medial inferior ○ Same basic pattern - the body is mapped out ■ Large areas and small areas of cortex associates with parts of the body ● Premotor cortex ○ Anterior to the precentral gyrus/ primary motor cortex ○ Controls learned, repetitious, or patterned motor skills ○ Coordinates simultaneous or sequential actions ○ Involved in the planning of movements that depend on sensory feedback ○ (know the difference between this and primary motor cortex) ○ Where you store motor patterns, this is where you learn to do motor activities ■ Ex: Handwriting, throwing, sports ○ Muscle is a target of the NS - it has no memory ○ Basic motor patterns - coordination learning ● Broca’s Area - devoted to forming words ○ Thinking about a word, saying about a word ○ Anterior to the inferior region of the premotor area ○ It is also a premotor area, but is specific to speech ○ If you think about forming words you will activate this area ○ Present in the one hemisphere (usually the left) ○ A motor speech area that directs muscles of the tongue ○ Is active as one prepares to speak ● Sensory Areas - memory is stored here too ○ Olfactory cortex ○ Gustatory cortex - in insula ■ Taste ○ Visceral sensory area ○ Vestibular cortex ● Primary somatosensory cortex (sensory area) ○ Parietal lobe - surface reception ○ Postcentral gyri ○ Receives sensory information from the skin, skeletal muscles, and joints ○ Capable of spatial discrimination: identification of body region being stimulated ○ Receives information for touch - where it is, Somatosensory Association Cortex is where you make sense of what it is like pressure/temp/feel ○ Sensory map ■ Know this too.. ■ Lots of motor area devoted to hands/fingers, below the forehead in face, GI tract ● Somatosensory association cortex (sensory area) ○ Parietal lobe - surface reception ○ Posterior to the primary somatosensory cortex ○ Processing begins here, before consciousness ○ Integrates sensory input from primary soma
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