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Lecture 6

EXSC 224 Lecture 6: Lecture 6 - 9/6

5 Pages
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Department
Exercise Science
Course Code
EXSC 224
Professor
Thompson

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Cerebral Hemisphere
Frontal lobe
Everything anterior to central sulcus
One of the newest parts of the brain
Tied into motor functions & memory
NO SENSORY INPUT DIRECTLY TO FRONTAL LOBE
Parietal lobe
PURE SENSORY
Tactile senses - pain, temperature, touch
Occipital lobe
Vision is initially recognized
Goes from parieto-occipital sulcus to transverse cerebral fissure
Temporal lobe - auditory
Gyri - ridges
Gyri of insula - associated with taste/ gustatory
“The 5th lobe”
NOT superficial, it is deep inside the brain, you can separate it from the
temporal lobe
Gyrus is singular, 2+ = gyri
Exposed cortex, a region that is separated by a sulcus or fissure
When the brain folds, we see a remarkably similar gyri (folds) in each person
Sulci - shallow grooves
Central sulcus
Anterior is the precentral gyrus
Posterior is the postcentral gyrus
Differentiates frontal from parietal
Lateral sulcus
Fissures - deep grooves
Longitudinal fissure - separates right and left hemispheres
Right - Controls/ receives from left side of body
Left - Controls/ receives from right side of body
Transverse cerebral fissure - separates cerebellum from cerebrum
Functional areas of the cerebral cortex - all areas are involved in conscious thought
Motor areas - control voluntary movement
Sensory areas - conscious awareness of sensation
Association areas - integrate diverse information
Conscious behavior involves the entire cortex
Primary motor cortex
Directly anterior to central sulcus
Makes up the precentral gyrus
Neurons descend down into spinal cord and synapse onto a neuron to stimulate
muscle
Upper motor neurons (pre synaptic) - reside solely in the CNS
Largest neurons in the body
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No conscious decision to cause these neurons to spontaneously activate
Large pyramidal cells of the precentral gyri
Long axon - pyramidal (corticospinal) tracts
Allows conscious control of precise, skilled, voluntary movements
Motor homunculi - upside-down caricatures representing the motor innervation of
body regions
Know this map/ understand
Where body parts exist
“Where are the toes?”
Medial inferior
“Where are the hips?”
Superior medial
Know which ones are lateral, lateral inferior, superior, lateral superior,
medial superior, medial inferior
Same basic pattern - the body is mapped out
Large areas and small areas of cortex associates with parts of the body
Premotor cortex
Anterior to the precentral gyrus/ primary motor cortex
Controls learned, repetitious, or patterned motor skills
Coordinates simultaneous or sequential actions
Involved in the planning of movements that depend on sensory feedback
(know the difference between this and primary motor cortex)
Where you store motor patterns, this is where you learn to do motor activities
Ex: Handwriting, throwing, sports
Muscle is a target of the NS - it has no memory
Basic motor patterns - coordination learning
Broca’s Area - devoted to forming words
Thinking about a word, saying about a word
Anterior to the inferior region of the premotor area
It is also a premotor area, but is specific to speech
If you think about forming words you will activate this area
Present in the one hemisphere (usually the left)
A motor speech area that directs muscles of the tongue
Is active as one prepares to speak
Sensory Areas - memory is stored here too
Olfactory cortex
Gustatory cortex - in insula
■ Taste
Visceral sensory area
Vestibular cortex
Primary somatosensory cortex (sensory area)
Parietal lobe - surface reception
Postcentral gyri
Receives sensory information from the skin, skeletal muscles, and joints
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Description
● Cerebral Hemisphere ○ Frontal lobe ■ Everything anterior to central sulcus ■ One of the newest parts of the brain ■ Tied into motor functions & memory ■ NO SENSORY INPUT DIRECTLY TO FRONTAL LOBE ○ Parietal lobe ■ PURE SENSORY ■ Tactile senses - pain, temperature, touch ○ Occipital lobe ■ Vision is initially recognized ■ Goes from parieto-occipital sulcus to transverse cerebral fissure ○ Temporal lobe - auditory ● Gyri - ridges ○ Gyri of insula - associated with taste/ gustatory ■ “The 5th lobe” ■ NOT superficial, it is deep inside the brain, you can separate it from the temporal lobe ○ Gyrus is singular, 2+ = gyri ○ Exposed cortex, a region that is separated by a sulcus or fissure ○ When the brain folds, we see a remarkably similar gyri (folds) in each person ● Sulci - shallow grooves ○ Central sulcus ■ Anterior is the precentral gyrus ■ Posterior is the postcentral gyrus ■ Differentiates frontal from parietal ○ Lateral sulcus ● Fissures - deep grooves ○ Longitudinal fissure - separates right and left hemispheres ■ Right - Controls/ receives from left side of body ■ Left - Controls/ receives from right side of body ○ Transverse cerebral fissure - separates cerebellum from cerebrum ● Functional areas of the cerebral cortex - all areas are involved in conscious thought ○ Motor areas - control voluntary movement ○ Sensory areas - conscious awareness of sensation ○ Association areas - integrate diverse information ● Conscious behavior involves the entire cortex ● Primary motor cortex ○ Directly anterior to central sulcus ■ Makes up the precentral gyrus ○ Neurons descend down into spinal cord and synapse onto a neuron to stimulate muscle ○ Upper motor neurons (pre synaptic) - reside solely in the CNS ■ Largest neurons in the body ○ No conscious decision to cause these neurons to spontaneously activate ○ Large pyramidal cells of the precentral gyri ○ Long axon - pyramidal (corticospinal) tracts ○ Allows conscious control of precise, skilled, voluntary movements ○ Motor homunculi - upside-down caricatures representing the motor innervation of body regions ■ Know this map/ understand ■ Where body parts exist ■ “Where are the toes?” ● Medial inferior ■ “Where are the hips?” ● Superior medial ■ Know which ones are lateral, lateral inferior, superior, lateral superior, medial superior, medial inferior ○ Same basic pattern - the body is mapped out ■ Large areas and small areas of cortex associates with parts of the body ● Premotor cortex ○ Anterior to the precentral gyrus/ primary motor cortex ○ Controls learned, repetitious, or patterned motor skills ○ Coordinates simultaneous or sequential actions ○ Involved in the planning of movements that depend on sensory feedback ○ (know the difference between this and primary motor cortex) ○ Where you store motor patterns, this is where you learn to do motor activities ■ Ex: Handwriting, throwing, sports ○ Muscle is a target of the NS - it has no memory ○ Basic motor patterns - coordination learning ● Broca’s Area - devoted to forming words ○ Thinking about a word, saying about a word ○ Anterior to the inferior region of the premotor area ○ It is also a premotor area, but is specific to speech ○ If you think about forming words you will activate this area ○ Present in the one hemisphere (usually the left) ○ A motor speech area that directs muscles of the tongue ○ Is active as one prepares to speak ● Sensory Areas - memory is stored here too ○ Olfactory cortex ○ Gustatory cortex - in insula ■ Taste ○ Visceral sensory area ○ Vestibular cortex ● Primary somatosensory cortex (sensory area) ○ Parietal lobe - surface reception ○ Postcentral gyri ○ Receives sensory information from the skin, skeletal muscles, and joints ○ Capable of spatial discrimination: identification of body region being stimulated ○ Receives information for touch - where it is, Somatosensory Association Cortex is where you make sense of what it is like pressure/temp/feel ○ Sensory map ■ Know this too.. ■ Lots of motor area devoted to hands/fingers, below the forehead in face, GI tract ● Somatosensory association cortex (sensory area) ○ Parietal lobe - surface reception ○ Posterior to the primary somatosensory cortex ○ Processing begins here, before consciousness ○ Integrates sensory input from primary soma
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