Class Notes (944,722)
US (365,161)
SC (191)
EXSC (11)
EXSC 224 (7)
Thompson (7)
Lecture 7

EXSC 224 Lecture 7: Lecture 7 - 9/8

by OneClass1080406 , Fall 2016
8 Pages
27 Views

Department
Exercise Science
Course Code
EXSC 224
Professor
Thompson
Lecture
7

This preview shows pages 1-3. Sign up to view the full 8 pages of the document.
Cerebral white matter
Myelinated fibers and their tracts - come to or leave the cerebral hemispheres
Responsible for communication
Commissures
Connects gray matter of the two hemispheres
Different sets connecting the 2 hemispheres
Most important is corpus callosum
Know what happens when you sever the corpus callosum
(epilepsy) etc.
Association fibers
Connect different parts of the same hemisphere
Connect gyri within the same hemisphere, and can be in different
lobes
Can connect the sensory to the prefrontal cortex
Projection fibers
Corona radiata
Connect the hemispheres with lower brain or spinal cord
Ascending and descending neurons
Going to and from the cortex of the cerebral hemisphere
Associated with either primary motor or primary sensory area
Motor are super long
Sensory are pretty short - project from thalamus to
primary sensory cortex
Basal Nuclei (Ganglia)
Associated with the cerebrum
Subcortical nuclei
Functionally associated with the subthalamic nuclei (diencephalon)
and the substantia nigra (midbrain)
Regions work together and play a role in motor function
Cyclic motor pattern - walking
It is in step with receiving information that then is relayed from
cerebellum to premotor cortex
Proprioception - body awareness, where you are, how
fast you’re moving, balance
Ganglia are clusters of neurons in the PNS
Nuclei are clusters of neurons in the CNS
Stratum -
Caudate nucleus (and tail)
Putamen (body)
Functions of Basal Nuclei
Though somewhat elusive, the following are thought to be functions of basal
nuclei -
Influence muscular control
find more resources at oneclass.com
find more resources at oneclass.com
Help regulate attention and cognition
Regulate intensity of slow or stereotyped movements
Inhibit antagonistic and unnecessary movements
^^ end of ppt lecture 5
Diencephalon - sits between old brain and new brain
Three paired structures
1. Thalamus
● Largest
Relay station
2. Hypothalamus
Key regulatory site
3. Epithalamus
Pineal Gland
Encloses the third ventricle
1. Thalamus - relay station
Made up of a cluster of different small nuclei
Each nuclei has a different function
Relay sensory info and send it to appropriate region
Act as a filter - if info coming in is not very strong, it might not get passed along
■ editing/filtering
ALL SENSORY INFORMATION PASSES THROUGH THE THALAMUS
BEFORE IT GOES TO THE CORTEX
*except proprioception always goes to the cerebellum first before going to
thalamus and then basal nuclei*
Hypothalamus - important
Also made up of different nuclei with specific function
The master regulator of body functions
“Key regulator of the autonomic nervous system’
Startled reflex passes through hypothalamus, it makes your heart rate go up
Increase sympathetic activity (fight or flight)
Decreased parasympathetic activity (rest and digest)
Associated with limbic association area
Hypothalamic function
Autonomic control center for many visceral functions
Blood pressure
Heartbeat rate
Heartbeat force
Digestive tract mobility
Center for emotional response (limbic)
Involved in perception of pleasure, fear, and rage
In biological rhythms and drives
Regulates body temperature, food intake, water balance, and thirst
find more resources at oneclass.com
find more resources at oneclass.com
Sweat glands, enlarged veins when hot
Regulates sleep and the sleep cycle (so does epithalamus)
Hypothalamus causes you to wake up due to secretion of hormone
cortisol
Controls release of hormones by the anterior pituitary
Produces posterior pituitary hormones (huge number of hormones)
Hypothalamus endocrine gland as well as neuronal tissue
● Epithalamus
Pineal gland - endocrine gland that secretes melatonin
Extends from the posterior border and secretes melatonin
Sleep wake cycles are controlled by epi and hypo thalamus
Epithalamus hormone (melatonin) makes you tired
Most dorsal portion of the diencephalon; forms roof of the third ventricle
Brain stem
Three regions:
1. Midbrain
2. Pons
3. Medulla oblongata
Midbain - study structures here
Cerebral peduncles
Contain pyramidal motor tracts
Carries MOTOR projection fibers
Superior - travelling from cerebellum and sends info up to the
thalamus
Cerebral aqueduct
Channel between third and fourth ventricles
Corpora quadrigemina - study this
Reflex centers
Superior portion is a reflex center for eyes
Inferior is auditory
● Pons
Forms part of the anterior wall of the fourth ventricle
Origin of cranial nerves V (trigeminal), VI (abducens), and VII (facial)
Some nuclei of the reticular formation
Nuclei that help maintain normal rhythm of breathing
Adjusts breathing, but does not initiate
Smoothes out breathing
Know reticular formation
Nuclei close to the fourth ventricle
Basic function - alertness, general cerebral arousal
Descending motor info from cerebral peduncles enters into pons where we refer
to them as pyramidal tracts
The SAME axon, but a different physical region of it
find more resources at oneclass.com
find more resources at oneclass.com

Loved by over 2.2 million students

Over 90% improved by at least one letter grade.

Leah — University of Toronto

OneClass has been such a huge help in my studies at UofT especially since I am a transfer student. OneClass is the study buddy I never had before and definitely gives me the extra push to get from a B to an A!

Leah — University of Toronto
Saarim — University of Michigan

Balancing social life With academics can be difficult, that is why I'm so glad that OneClass is out there where I can find the top notes for all of my classes. Now I can be the all-star student I want to be.

Saarim — University of Michigan
Jenna — University of Wisconsin

As a college student living on a college budget, I love how easy it is to earn gift cards just by submitting my notes.

Jenna — University of Wisconsin
Anne — University of California

OneClass has allowed me to catch up with my most difficult course! #lifesaver

Anne — University of California
Description
● Cerebral white matter ○ Myelinated fibers and their tracts - come to or leave the cerebral hemispheres ○ Responsible for communication ■ Commissures ● Connects gray matter of the two hemispheres ● Different sets connecting the 2 hemispheres ● Most important is corpus callosum ● Know what happens when you sever the corpus callosum (epilepsy) etc. ■ Association fibers ● Connect different parts of the same hemisphere ● Connect gyri within the same hemisphere, and can be in different lobes ● Can connect the sensory to the prefrontal cortex ■ Projection fibers ● Corona radiata ● Connect the hemispheres with lower brain or spinal cord ● Ascending and descending neurons ● Going to and from the cortex of the cerebral hemisphere ● Associated with either primary motor or primary sensory area ○ Motor are super long ○ Sensory are pretty short - project from thalamus to primary sensory cortex ○ Basal Nuclei (Ganglia) ■ Associated with the cerebrum ■ Subcortical nuclei ■ Functionally associated with the subthalamic nuclei (diencephalon) and the substantia nigra (midbrain) ■ Regions work together and play a role in motor function ● Cyclic motor pattern - walking ● It is in step with receiving information that then is relayed from cerebellum to premotor cortex ○ Proprioception - body awareness, where you are, how fast you’re moving, balance ■ Ganglia are clusters of neurons in the PNS ■ Nuclei are clusters of neurons in the CNS ■ Stratum - ● Caudate nucleus (and tail) ● Putamen (body) ● Functions of Basal Nuclei ○ Though somewhat elusive, the following are thought to be functions of basal nuclei - ■ Influence muscular control ■ Help regulate attention and cognition ■ Regulate intensity of slow or stereotyped movements ■ Inhibit antagonistic and unnecessary movements ^^ end of ppt lecture 5 ● Diencephalon - sits between old brain and new brain ○ Three paired structures ■ 1. Thalamus ● Largest ● Relay station ■ 2. Hypothalamus ● Key regulatory site ■ 3. Epithalamus ● Pineal Gland ○ Encloses the third ventricle ● 1. Thalamus - relay station ○ Made up of a cluster of different small nuclei ■ Each nuclei has a different function ○ Relay sensory info and send it to appropriate region ○ Act as a filter - if info coming in is not very strong, it might not get passed along ■ editing/filtering ○ ALL SENSORY INFORMATION PASSES THROUGH THE THALAMUS BEFORE IT GOES TO THE CORTEX ■ *except proprioception always goes to the cerebellum first before going to thalamus and then basal nuclei* ● Hypothalamus - important ○ Also made up of different nuclei with specific function ○ The master regulator of body functions ○ “Key regulator of the autonomic nervous system’ ○ Startled reflex passes through hypothalamus, it makes your heart rate go up ○ Increase sympathetic activity (fight or flight) ○ Decreased parasympathetic activity (rest and digest) ○ Associated with limbic association area ● Hypothalamic function ○ Autonomic control center for many visceral functions ■ Blood pressure ■ Heartbeat rate ■ Heartbeat force ■ Digestive tract mobility ○ Center for emotional response (limbic) ■ Involved in perception of pleasure, fear, and rage ■ In biological rhythms and drives ○ Regulates body temperature, food intake, water balance, and thirst ■ Sweat glands, enlarged veins when hot ○ Regulates sleep and the sleep cycle (so does epithalamus) ■ Hypothalamus causes you to wake up due to secretion of hormone cortisol ○ Controls release of hormones by the anterior pituitary ○ Produces posterior pituitary hormones (huge number of hormones) ○ Hypothalamus endocrine gland as well as neuronal tissue ● Epithalamus ○ Pineal gland - endocrine gland that secretes melatonin ■ Extends from the posterior border and secretes melatonin ■ Sleep wake cycles are controlled by epi and hypo thalamus ■ Epithalamus hormone (melatonin) makes you tired ○ Most dorsal portion of the diencephalon; forms roof of the third ventricle Brain stem ● Three regions: ○ 1. Midbrain ○ 2. Pons ○ 3. Medulla oblongata ● Midbain - study structures here ○ Cerebral peduncles ■ Contain pyramidal motor tracts ■ Carries MOTOR projection fibers ■ Superior - travelling from cerebellum and sends info up to the thalamus ○ Cerebral aqueduct ■ Channel between third and fourth ventricles ○ Corpora quadrigemina - study this ■ Reflex centers ■ Superior portion is a reflex center for eyes ■ Inferior is auditory ● Pons ○ Forms part of the anterior wall of the fourth ventricle ○ Origin of cranial nerves V (trigeminal), VI (abducens), and VII (facial) ○ Some nuclei of the reticular formation ○ Nuclei that help maintain normal rhythm of breathing ■ Adjusts breathing, but does not initiate ■ Smoothes out breathing ○ Know reticular formation ■ Nuclei close to the fourth ventricle ■ Basic function - alertness, general cerebral arousal ○ Descending motor info from cerebral peduncles enters into pons where we refer to them as pyramidal tracts ■ The SAME axon, but a different physical region of it ○ Know medial lemniscus - nuclei within the pons ■ Associated with ascending/ afferent sensory information ○ Know fibers of pyramidal tract ● Medulla Oblongata - autonomic reflex centers ○ Cardiovascular center ■ Heart rate/ force ■ Blood vessel diameter ■ Neurons in brainstem that give rise to sympathetic nervous system ■ Regulates blood pressure ○ Respiratory centers ■ Generate respiratory rhythm ■ Control rate and depth of breathing, with pontine centers ■ Breathing originates in medulla ○ Additional (reflex) centers regulate: ■ Vomiting ■ Hiccuping ■ Swallowing ■ Coughing ■ Sneezing ○ Know pyramids - two central longitudinal ridges formed by py
More Less
Unlock Document


Only pages 1-3 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

Unlock Document
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version

Unlock Document

Log In


OR

Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit