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Lecture 7

EXSC 224 Lecture Notes - Lecture 7: Skeletal Muscle, Meninges, Cerebral Peduncle

8 pages27 viewsFall 2016

Department
Exercise Science
Course Code
EXSC 224
Professor
Thompson
Lecture
7

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Cerebral white matter
Myelinated fibers and their tracts - come to or leave the cerebral hemispheres
Responsible for communication
Commissures
Connects gray matter of the two hemispheres
Different sets connecting the 2 hemispheres
Most important is corpus callosum
Know what happens when you sever the corpus callosum
(epilepsy) etc.
Association fibers
Connect different parts of the same hemisphere
Connect gyri within the same hemisphere, and can be in different
lobes
Can connect the sensory to the prefrontal cortex
Projection fibers
Corona radiata
Connect the hemispheres with lower brain or spinal cord
Ascending and descending neurons
Going to and from the cortex of the cerebral hemisphere
Associated with either primary motor or primary sensory area
Motor are super long
Sensory are pretty short - project from thalamus to
primary sensory cortex
Basal Nuclei (Ganglia)
Associated with the cerebrum
Subcortical nuclei
Functionally associated with the subthalamic nuclei (diencephalon)
and the substantia nigra (midbrain)
Regions work together and play a role in motor function
Cyclic motor pattern - walking
It is in step with receiving information that then is relayed from
cerebellum to premotor cortex
Proprioception - body awareness, where you are, how
fast you’re moving, balance
Ganglia are clusters of neurons in the PNS
Nuclei are clusters of neurons in the CNS
Stratum -
Caudate nucleus (and tail)
Putamen (body)
Functions of Basal Nuclei
Though somewhat elusive, the following are thought to be functions of basal
nuclei -
Influence muscular control
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Help regulate attention and cognition
Regulate intensity of slow or stereotyped movements
Inhibit antagonistic and unnecessary movements
^^ end of ppt lecture 5
Diencephalon - sits between old brain and new brain
Three paired structures
1. Thalamus
● Largest
Relay station
2. Hypothalamus
Key regulatory site
3. Epithalamus
Pineal Gland
Encloses the third ventricle
1. Thalamus - relay station
Made up of a cluster of different small nuclei
Each nuclei has a different function
Relay sensory info and send it to appropriate region
Act as a filter - if info coming in is not very strong, it might not get passed along
■ editing/filtering
ALL SENSORY INFORMATION PASSES THROUGH THE THALAMUS
BEFORE IT GOES TO THE CORTEX
*except proprioception always goes to the cerebellum first before going to
thalamus and then basal nuclei*
Hypothalamus - important
Also made up of different nuclei with specific function
The master regulator of body functions
“Key regulator of the autonomic nervous system’
Startled reflex passes through hypothalamus, it makes your heart rate go up
Increase sympathetic activity (fight or flight)
Decreased parasympathetic activity (rest and digest)
Associated with limbic association area
Hypothalamic function
Autonomic control center for many visceral functions
Blood pressure
Heartbeat rate
Heartbeat force
Digestive tract mobility
Center for emotional response (limbic)
Involved in perception of pleasure, fear, and rage
In biological rhythms and drives
Regulates body temperature, food intake, water balance, and thirst
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Sweat glands, enlarged veins when hot
Regulates sleep and the sleep cycle (so does epithalamus)
Hypothalamus causes you to wake up due to secretion of hormone
cortisol
Controls release of hormones by the anterior pituitary
Produces posterior pituitary hormones (huge number of hormones)
Hypothalamus endocrine gland as well as neuronal tissue
● Epithalamus
Pineal gland - endocrine gland that secretes melatonin
Extends from the posterior border and secretes melatonin
Sleep wake cycles are controlled by epi and hypo thalamus
Epithalamus hormone (melatonin) makes you tired
Most dorsal portion of the diencephalon; forms roof of the third ventricle
Brain stem
Three regions:
1. Midbrain
2. Pons
3. Medulla oblongata
Midbain - study structures here
Cerebral peduncles
Contain pyramidal motor tracts
Carries MOTOR projection fibers
Superior - travelling from cerebellum and sends info up to the
thalamus
Cerebral aqueduct
Channel between third and fourth ventricles
Corpora quadrigemina - study this
Reflex centers
Superior portion is a reflex center for eyes
Inferior is auditory
● Pons
Forms part of the anterior wall of the fourth ventricle
Origin of cranial nerves V (trigeminal), VI (abducens), and VII (facial)
Some nuclei of the reticular formation
Nuclei that help maintain normal rhythm of breathing
Adjusts breathing, but does not initiate
Smoothes out breathing
Know reticular formation
Nuclei close to the fourth ventricle
Basic function - alertness, general cerebral arousal
Descending motor info from cerebral peduncles enters into pons where we refer
to them as pyramidal tracts
The SAME axon, but a different physical region of it
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