Abnormal Psychology Chapter 7 Mood Disorders and Suicide

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Biological Sciences
BIOL 021
Dr.Steven Del Chiaro

Chapter 7 Mood Disorders and Suicide 1. Major Depressive Episode a. Symptoms i. Most commonly diagnosed and most severe depression ii. An extremely depressed mood state that lasts at least 2 weeks iii. Includes cognitive symptoms (feelings of worthlessness and indecisiveness) iv. Disturbed physical functions (altered sleeping patterns, change in appetite and weight) v. General loss of interest in things vi. Loss of ability to experience any pleasure in life 2. Mania a. Symptoms i. Find extreme pleasure in every activity ii. Compares daily experience of mania to a continuous sexual orgasm iii. Extraordinarily active (hyperactive) iv. Require little sleep v. Develop grandiose plans (believing they can accomplish anything) vi. Speech is rapid and may become incoherent vii. “flight of ideas” viii. Lasts 1 episode. Less if episode is severe enough to require hospitalization. 3. Hypomanic Episode a. Symptoms i. Less severe version of a manic episode that does not cause marked impairment in social or occupational functioning ii. Hypo means “below”; below the level of a manic episode 4. Unipolar mood disorder a. Individuals who experience either depression OR mania b. Mood remains at one “pole” of the usual depression-mania 5. Bipolar mood disorder a. Individuals who alternates between depression and mania b. Traveling from one “pole” to the other and back again. 6. Dysphoric Manic Episode / Mixed Manic Episode a. Individual experience manic symptoms but feel somewhat depressed or anxious at the same time. b. Feels like can’t control manic episode but will go away without treatment and takes a while 7. Major Depressive Disorder, Single Episode a. Symptoms i. Absence of manic or hypomanic episodes before or during the disorder 8. Major Depressive Disorder, Recurrent a. Symptoms i. Two or more major depressive episodes occurred and were separated by at least 2 months during which the individual was not depressed 9. Dysthymic disorder a. Symptoms i. Shares many symptoms of major depressive disorder ii. Symptoms are somewhat milder but remain unchanged over long periods of times. iii. 20-30 years iv. Persistently depressed mood that continues at least 2 years and patient cannot be symptom free for at least 2 months at a time. 10. Double Depression a. Symptoms i. Individual suffer from both major depressive episodes and dysthymic disorder ii. Typically, dysthymic disorder develops first and then one or more major depressive episodes occur later b. Statistics i. Risk of major depression is low in the early teens. ii. Medan age of onset = 30 iii. Depression in younger people slowly increasing 11. Grief to Depression a. Normal to feel grief when someone close dies. When grief lasts beyond the normal time, after a year or so, might become pathological or impacted grief reaction. i. Develop without a preexisting depressed state ii. Intrusive memories and distressingly strong yearnings for the loved one iii. Avoiding people or places that are reminders of the loved one b. Treatment i. Talk about the loved one, the death, the meaning of the loss while experiencing emotions until person can come to terms with reality. 12. Bipolar II Disorder a. Major depressive episodes alternate with hypomanic episodes rather than full manic episodes b. Hypomanic episodes are less severe c. Statistics i. Median age: between 19 and 22 13. Bipolar I Disorder a. Same but individual experiences a full manic episode. b. Statistics i. Average age: 18 years old ii. Rare to develop after age 40 c. Treatment i. Ongoing drug regiments that prevent recurrence of episodes ii. Suicide is very common. 17% for bipolar I and 24% for bipolar II 14. Cyclothymic disorder a. Milder and chronic version of bipolar disorder i. Symptoms 1. Chronic alternation of mood elevation and depression 2. Does not reach severity of manic or major depressive episodes 3. Lasts for at least 2 years 4. Alternate between the kinds of mile depressive symptoms ii. Statistics 1. 60% female 2. Age of onset is young: 12 to 14 years old 3. Disorder is not often recognized because they are thought to be high-strung, explosive, moody, or hyperactive. 15. Specifiers a. Other symptoms that someone is experiencing b. May or may not accompany a mood disorder c. 6 basic types: i. Atypical Features Specifier 1. People with depressive episodes and dysthymia (no manic episodes) consistently oversleep and overeat during depressive episodes and gain weight. 2. Can have pleasure/interest to some things 3. Associated with more women and earlier age of onset. 4. More suicide attempts 5. Higher rate of comorbid disorders ii. Melancholic Features Specifier 1. People with major depressive episode, does not apply to dysthymia 2. More severe somatic symptoms 3. Early-morning awakenings 4. Weight loss 5. Los of libido (sex drive) 6. Excessive or inappropriate guilt 7. Anhedonia (diminished interest or pleasure in activities) iii. Chronic Features Specifier 1. Applies to people with major depressive episode for at least 2 years. Dysthymic disorder is not considered here. 2. Dsythymia – can take a break for 1 month (on/off) iv. Catatonic Features Specifier 1. People with major depressive episodes and manic episodes. Rare in mania. 2. An absence of movement (a stuporous state) 3. Catalepsy – muscles are waxy and semi rigid. 4. Excessive but random or purposeless movements 5. More commonly associated with schizophrenia. v. Psychotic Features Specifier 1. People with major depressive/manic episodes experience psychotic symptoms 2. Hallucinations – seeing or hearing things that aren’t there 3. Delusions – strongly held but inaccurate beliefs 4. Somatic delusions – believing that their bodies are rotting internally and deteriorating into nothingness vi. Postpartum Onset Specifier 1. Both major depressive an
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