Anatomy Lecture Notes Sept 12
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Department
Biological Sciences
Course
BIOL 065
Professor
Dr.Joanne Kerr
Semester
Fall

Description
Respiratory System 1. Components a. Nasal cavities b. Pharynx c. Larynx (oral, cavity ) d. Trachea e. Bronchial "Tree" i. right lung: 3 lobes, larger ii. Left lung: 2 lobes, smaller f. Lungs g. Diaphragm and Intercostal Muscles - (Floor of the lung) 2. Functions a. allow us to take deep breaths, smell, cough, sneeze 3. Air Pathway (Inhalation): a. Nasal Cavities i. Pseudostratified Cilitated Columnar Epithelium with Goblet Cells for Mucus production 1. In the nose. 2. Air too dry = will moisten for us 3. air too hot = will cool for us 4. air too cold = will warm for us 5. The nose hair will trap particles from coming in ii. Conchae (folds of bone) iii. Nasal Septum = bone + Cartilage iv. Lateral walls = muscle and skin v. Floor = hard and soft Palate (also roof of the mouth), also floor of nasal cavity vi. Uvula (Soft Palate) - seals the nose with swallowing, muscle! Each time we swallow, it flips up to block entrance to nasal cavity vii. Olfactory region 1. Sense of smell via Cranial nerve #1 viii. Four Paranasal Sinuses: 1. Frontal, Maxillary, Sphenoid and Ethmoid 2. Tear ducts - nasal tear ducts 3. Nasolacriminal duct (canal) : Tears -> Nose 4. Eustachian Tube: Middle Ear to Nasal Pharynx 5. Nasal Cavity Receives: Air, SInus secretions, Tears, Mucous, Eustachian Tube air and Oral Liquids (with failed Uvula = laughing while swallowing b. Pharynx - common to Respiratory and Digestive systems (Essential Function: Protection of the airway) i. Three parts 1. Nasal Pharynx - part of nose 2. Oral pharynx - part of mouse 3. Laryngeal Pharynx (also called the hypopharynx) - air and food anterior - form larynx 4. STRATIFIED SQUAMOUS EPITHELIUM c. Larynx i. made of cartilages ii. From Epiglottis to Top of the Trachea iii. Nine Cartilages: 3 unpaired and 3 paired 1. 3 unpaired a. Thyroid - Adam's Apple b. Cricoid - signet ring below Thyroid Cartilage (Ring- shaped) c. Epiglottis - (Greek) - on the mouth of the windpipe, leaf shaped, movable elastic cartilage (tongue shaped, flips down to block food from trachea to lung) 2. 3 paired a. Arytenoids - pyramids with attached true vocal cords, skeletal muscle to move cords together or apart b. Corniculates- horn like elastic cartilage, above the arytenoids c. Cuneiforms - wedged shaped elastic cartilage, lie in front of the Arytenoids iv. Males: puberty in males 1. enlarged thyroid cartilage with longer vocal folds = slower vibration = deeper voice 2. Testerone causes changes 3. Women: thinner and shorter vocal cords = higher voice v. Cancers 1. people who smoke tobacco (because of hot smoke and tar) 2. people who smoke and drink: much higher change 3. Laryngitis - inflammation of larynx. Voice becomes hoarse d. Trachea i. windpipe ii. 16 20 C-shaped Hyaline cartilages that open posteriorly iii. Lies anterior to Esophagus iv. Splits into right and left primary bronchi 1. right: shorter, wider, more vertical -> 3 secondary bronchi ( 3 lobes) [bigger in diameter and more vertical] 2. left: longer, narrower, more horizontal -> 2 secondary bronchi (2 lobes) v. Pleura 1. double sac of serious membrane surrounding the lungs inner Visceral layer, outer Parieta
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