Anatomy Lecture Notes On Aug 27

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Biological Sciences
BIOL 065
Dr.Joanne Kerr

Embryology, Cell and Skin LAB: (Need to know functions of organelles!) 1. Cell Membrane a. Regulates entry and exit of molecules found in cell 2. Cytoplasm a. Liquid phase of the cell 3. Nucleus a. Found near center of the cell and usually round b. Contains loosely coiled strands of DNA 4. Chromatin a. Loosely coiled strands of DNA b. Found in Nucleus 5. Nuclear membrane a. Envelope of nucleus that regulates molecules 6. Nucleoli a. Protein synthesis 7. Ribosome a. Extensive network of specialized membranes 8. Rough Endoplasm Reticulum a. Protein synthesis 9. Smooth Endoplasm Reticulum a. Lipid and steroid synthesis 10. Golgi Apparatus a. Package the proteins released from Rough ER 11. Mitochondria a. Makes ATP 12. Polyribosomes a. Group of ribosomes that freely float in the cytoplasm 13. Centrioles a. Tubules arranged at right angles to one another b. Control movements of chromosomes during cell duplication 14. LECTURE: 1. Embryology a. Cells begin to divide rapidly b. Form 3 Primary Germ layers i. Ecledem (outermost layer skin) ii. Mesoderm (middle layer skin) iii. Endoderm (innermost layer skin) c. Yolk sac – gives nutrients, oxygen to embryo i. 3 week: blood islands ->primitive blood cells th ii. 4 week: heart begins to beat th iii. 5 week: liver and spleen produce blood cells 2. Cells a. 200 distinct cell types i. Simple ii. Stratified iii. Pseudostratified iv. Squamous v. Cuboidal vi. Columnar vii. Ciliated b. Cell Structure i. Nucelus 1. Isn’t always in the center 2. Neuron – nucleus is at the edge of the cell ii. Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum iii. Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum iv. Mitochondria 1. Makes ATP and energy v. Centrioles 1. Make spinder fibers to duplicate DNA, split into two vi. Cilia and Microvilli vii. Flagella viii. Pigments 3. Skin a. Integument System b. Functions: i. Protection 1. Protect from UV light, bacteria ii. Temperature regulation 1. Sweat when too hot 2. Shiver when too cold 3. Too much salt and alcohol = sweat iii. Excretion 1. Sweat glands iv. Sensation v. Vitamin D c. Thick vs. Thin Skin i. Thick skin 1. No hair
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