Anatomy Lecture Notes Sept 17

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Biological Sciences
BIOL 065
Dr.Joanne Kerr

Digestive system: Upper and Lower Gl 1. Digestive or Gastronitestinal (GI) Tract = Alimentary Canal a. Function i. break down food mechanically and chemically ii. exertion of waste iii. water balance 2. Tubular System with 4 Tunics (Coats/Layers) [stratified squamous] a. Tunica Mucosa b. Tunica Submucosa i. where arteries and veins are at c. Tunica Muscularis d. Tunica Serosa i. delicate wet membrane, helps organs move without friction 3. Mouth: Lips to Oral Pharynx a. Stratified Squamous i. Roof 1. hard and soft palates 2. floor of Nasal cavity (shared anatomy) ii. Floor 1. Tongue and sublingual salivary glands iii. Tongue Papillae (little nipples on tongue): 1. Filiforms (cones) a. fine little projections on tongue 2. Fungiform (mushrooms) a. larger and rounder projections on tongue 3. Circumvalate V a. large V projection or bump at the back of the tongue (inner mouth) iv. Tonsils 1. Lingual a. at the back of the tongue 2. Palatine a. Part of soft palate 3. Pharyngeal = Adenoids a. down the throat 4. Teeth: modified bone a. Alveoli i. holding the teeth to gum b. Gum (Gingiva) i. protective skin that holds to neck of teeth and cover the bone holding the root of the teeth c. Tooth Components i. Crown (Above gum line) ii. Neck (at gum line) iii. Root (below gum line) iv. Pulp v. Dentin vi. Apical Foramen 5. Cancer of Tongue a. Cause: Chewing tobacco b. Only treatment: cut segments/parts of the tongue 6. Inflammation of Gingiva a. gum bleeds when brushing teeth b. Can lose teeth c. FLOSS to remove food in between teeth d. Bone = Living tissue Type of Teeth Deciduous Number Permanent Number Incisors 8 8 Canines 4 4 Premolars 0 8 Molars 8 12 (including wisdom teeth) Total 20 32 Pharynx 1. Esophagus a. stratified squamous b. muscular tube about 10 inches long c. isn't designed for acids d. Upper voluntary skeletal muscle and lower involuntary smooth muscle e. Pierces the Diaphragm at Thoracic-10 f. GERD (Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease) i. "Heartburn" - painful for esophagus, burning sensation g. Esophageal Cancers i. throwing up too much ii. Ulcers - esophagus, painful, excessive bleeding 2. Peritoneal Cavity: From Diaphragm to Pelvic Floor a. Closed in men, open in women b. lined by peritoneum with fluid c. Infection and Inflammation = Peritonitis (inflammation of peritoneal) 3. Stomach Components a. Function: i. absorbs water ii. has different shapes and sizes iii. very acidic and many enzymes b. Components i. Cardiac Orifice ii. Fundus (top part of stomach, too much air from soda cause burping)
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