BIOL 065 Lecture Notes - Hyperplasia, Prostate Cancer, Prostate-Specific Antigen

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4 Oct 2013
Male Reproductive System
1. Embryology
a. In the first trimester:
i. The yolk sac produces red blood cells and germ cells
ii. Germ cells later become Spermatozoa-forming cells
iii. The testes develop high in the abdomen and later descend through the
inguinal canal and into the cooler scrotum, dragging the ducts and blood
vessels along
iv. The inguinal Canal becomes narrow
b. Undescended Testes
i. Sometimes the testes don't travel down to the scrotum and remain in the
1. fertility rate will increase and increase risk of testicular cancer
because of the high temperature in the abdomen versus the cooler
ii. Sometimes within 1st year of birth, the tests will move down.
iii. If after two years and testes haven't moved down, must surgerically move
them down!
2. Testes
a. are larger than the women's ovaries
b. Produce billions of spermatozoas throughout lifespan
c. Menopause: decrease sperm count but never goes down to 0!
d. Release Androgens and trace amounts of Estrogens
3. Scrotum
a. thin skin that encloses the testes and epididymis
4. Seminiferous Tubules
a. Seed producing, germ producing. Where sperms are first made
b. many yards of tubules in testes, sperm goes to epididymis to mature
c. Spermatozoa are formed in Seminiferous Tubules to the epididymis for storage
and then ejaculated into Ductus Deferns or reabsorbed
5. Interstitial Cells of Leydig
a. Produce the hormone: Testosterone
6. Spermatogenesis
a. 64-70 days (close to timing of Ova development if the ovaries alternate releasing
eggs during the cycle)
i. Spermatogonia
ii. Primary Spermatocytes
iii. Secondary Spermatocytes
iv. Spermatids (embed in Sertoli Cells for tail development)
v. Developing Spermatozoa
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