Anatomy Lecture Notes on October 1

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San Jose State University
Biological Sciences
BIOL 065
Dr.Joanne Kerr

Male Reproductive System 1. Embryology a. In the first trimester: i. The yolk sac produces red blood cells and germ cells ii. Germ cells later become Spermatozoa-forming cells iii. The testes develop high in the abdomen and later descend through the inguinal canal and into the cooler scrotum, dragging the ducts and blood vessels along iv. The inguinal Canal becomes narrow b. Undescended Testes i. Sometimes the testes don't travel down to the scrotum and remain in the abdomen. 1. fertility rate will increase and increase risk of testicular cancer because of the high temperature in the abdomen versus the cooler scrotum ii. Sometimes within 1st year of birth, the tests will move down. iii. If after two years and testes haven't moved down, must surgerically move them down! 2. Testes a. are larger than the women's ovaries b. Produce billions of spermatozoas throughout lifespan c. Menopause: decrease sperm count but never goes down to 0! d. Release Androgens and trace amounts of Estrogens 3. Scrotum a. thin skin that encloses the testes and epididymis 4. Seminiferous Tubules a. Seed producing, germ producing. Where sperms are first made b. many yards of tubules in testes, sperm goes to epididymis to mature c. Spermatozoa are formed in Seminiferous Tubules to the epididymis for storage and then ejaculated into Ductus Deferns or reabsorbed 5. Interstitial Cells of Leydig a. Produce the hormone: Testosterone 6. Spermatogenesis a. 64-70 days (close to timing of Ova development if the ovaries alternate releasing eggs during the cycle) i. Spermatogonia ii. Primary Spermatocytes iii. Secondary Spermatocytes iv. Spermatids (embed in Sertoli Cells for tail development) v. Developing Spermatozoa vi. Mature Spermatozoa 7. Testicular Self Exam a. once a month b. Testes should feel like a hardboiled egg (soft but firm) c. Take a nice hot shower and self exam testes! 8. Spermatozoa Components a. Acrosome head with enzymes b. Flagella (Tail of sperm) 9. Vasectomy a. cutting of the ductus deferens b. form of birth control c. very trivial procedure d. can still ejaculate semen, but no sperm e. 1% incline in volume. 99% = semen while 1% sperm 10. Spermatic Cord a. Ductus Deferens, Testicular Arteries, Veins, Nerves and Lymphatics b. Left Spermatic Cord is longer = lower left testicle. c. Why? No one knows. 11. Seminal Vesicles a. "semen sacs" , paired sacs b. high level of fructose (fruit sugar) c. keeps sperm alive in women up to 5
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