Osteology and the Vertebrae
1. Skeletal System = Osteology (study of bones)
2. "Bone is living tissue". Needs calcium and phosphorus to be strong. Has a lot of blood
3. 5 Functions
d. Mineral Reservoir
4. 7 Classifications based on Morphology (Shapes)
a. Long (femur, humerus, radius, ulna, fibula, tibia, fingers)
b. Short (wrists and ankles)
c. Flat (sternum [breast bone], scapula)
d. Irregular (pelvis)
e. Pneumatic (containing air). Skull
f. Sesamoid (resembles a seed) (knee cap/patella)
g. Supernumerary (extra bones in body)
i. Common. People who have more than 206 bones.
ii. Example: extra finger or toe or rib.
5. Bone Types and Regions
i. dense area and is all along the edges of the bone
i. spaces within it, center of the bone and contains the bone marrow.
i. ends of bone
ii. where ligaments hold together. Has to do with fractures.
i. shaft of bone
e. Epiphyseal Plate
i. where the bone is still growing.
f. Red Bone Marrow
i. produces red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets.
ii. Located where heat is (example: skull, sternum, pelvis)
g. Yellow Bone Marrow
i. More fat cells and tissue
ii. not producing red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets.
iii. Located at outer parts (hands and feet) iv. INACTIVE
6. Organization of Compact Bone
a. Haversian System
7. Organization of Spongy Bone
a. is not random!
8. Bone formation, Growth, and Remodeling
a. Living Tissue
b. Rich Blood Supply
9. Embryonic Origin
a. skeleton made of cartilage and later grows into bone later.
b. The Epiphyseal plate is visible in children because they are still growing. In
adults, it is gone.
10. Bone Growth: typically not complete until 25 years of age!
11. Influences of Hormones:
a. Growth Hormone
b. Parathyroid hormone
c. Thyroid Calcitonin
d. Genetics always influence bone growth
12. Classification of 206 Bones based on position:
a. Axial skeleton = 80 bones
i. Cranium = 8
ii. Facial = 14
iii. Hyoid = 1
iv. Inner Ear = 6
b. Vertebral Column = 26 bones
i. Cervical = 7
ii. Thoracic = 12
iii. Lumbar = 5
iv. Sacrum (5 fused bones) and Coccyx (3-5 bones) = 2
v. Thorax = 25
1. Sternum = 1 (3 fused bones: manubrium, body, xiphoid)
vi. Ribs = 24 (12 pairs, same in men and women)
c. Appendicular Skeleton = 126 bones
i. Pectoral (shoulder) girdle = 4 (2 clavicles, 2 scapulae)
ii. Upper Limbs = 60 (including 8 wrist bones in each hand)
iii. Pelvis = 2 (each 3 fused bones: ileum, ischium, pubis)
iv. Lower limbs = 60 (7 bones in each ankle plus patellae)
13. Bone Pathologies:
i. In children, if it hits the epiphyseal plate, it can damage the bone growth. ii. In the lower body, it is very dangerous because it can affect the limb of
that leg and affect posture and walking.
iii. In upper body, it is OK.
iv. Green Stick Fractures
1. children's bones will not heal properly and must be align back in
2. Does not happen to adult.
3. However, if the bone is crushed badly, must have a bone transplant
from National Bone Bank.
i. Bone becomes thin and weak. Spaces in the bone.
ii. Rate of bone loss is greater than rate of bone growth.