BIOL 065 Lecture Notes - Melatonin, Sphenoid Bone, Circadian Rhythm

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22 Oct 2013
The Endocrine System
1. Endocrine glands
a. Ductless
b. Hormone secretions acts as Chemical Messengers -> Bloodstream -> organs
2. 9 Locations of Endocrine Glands
a. Pituitary
b. Pineal
c. Thyroid
d. Parathyroid Glands
e. Thymus
f. Adrenal Glands
g. Pancreas
h. Ovaries
i. Testes
3. Pituitary Gland
a. Located in Sella Turcica of Sphenoid bone
b. Master of endocrine system
c. Secretes hormones to control other locations
d. Embryonic Development
i. Brain -> Posterior Lobe
1. Part of it is outside of brain. The other segment develops on the
roof of the mouth , towards the brain
ii. Rathke’s Pouch (off mouth) -> Anterior Lobe
1. Starts at roof of mouth and closes off
2. Surgeons use this by going through roof of mouth or through nasal
e. Function
i. Produces Hormones:
1. Oxyctocin
2. Antidiurectic Hormone (ADH or Vasopression)
ii. Anterior Lobe Releases:
1. Thyroid Stimulating Hormone -> Release of Thyroid hormones
2. Adrenocoricotrophic Hormone (ACTH)
3. Female Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH)
4. Leutinizing Hormone (OH)
5. Prolactin -> milk production
6. Growth Hormone
a. Overproduction of growth hormone: Gigantism in children
and Acromegaly in adults
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