Anatomy Notes Oct 8

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Biological Sciences
BIOL 065
Dr.Joanne Kerr

The Endocrine System 1. Endocrine glands a. Ductless b. Hormone secretions acts as Chemical Messengers -> Bloodstream -> organs 2. 9 Locations of Endocrine Glands a. Pituitary b. Pineal c. Thyroid d. Parathyroid Glands e. Thymus f. Adrenal Glands g. Pancreas h. Ovaries i. Testes 3. Pituitary Gland a. Located in Sella Turcica of Sphenoid bone b. Master of endocrine system c. Secretes hormones to control other locations d. Embryonic Development i. Brain -> Posterior Lobe 1. Part of it is outside of brain. The other segment develops on the roof of the mouth , towards the brain ii. Rathke’s Pouch (off mouth) -> Anterior Lobe 1. Starts at roof of mouth and closes off 2. Surgeons use this by going through roof of mouth or through nasal cavity e. Function i. Produces Hormones: 1. Oxyctocin 2. Antidiurectic Hormone (ADH or Vasopression) ii. Anterior Lobe Releases: 1. Thyroid Stimulating Hormone -> Release of Thyroid hormones 2. Adrenocoricotrophic Hormone (ACTH) 3. Female Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH) 4. Leutinizing Hormone (OH) 5. Prolactin -> milk production 6. Growth Hormone a. Overproduction of growth hormone: Gigantism in children and Acromegaly in adults i. In children, bones will become thinner, longer, taller ii. In adults, bones will be thicker, wider b. Undersecretion of Growth Hormone = Dwarfism 7. Melanocyte Stimulating Hormone (MSH) f. Pituitary tumors can i. Affect visual problems due to Optic Chiasm location ii. Pituitary gland is right next to optic nerves. iii. Tumors will grow bigger and hit the optic nerves = visual problems. (tunnel vision) 4. Thyroid Gland a. Located in the neck, under the skin b. Only gland to store hormones and produce day and night c. Components i. Has 2 lobes, connected by Ismet, Pyramidal lobes, H-Shaped d. Embryology i. Begins at base of tongue ii. Goes down to larynx and cells begin to divide to form gland e. Thyroid Hormones and Iodine i. Made by follicle in the lobe. ii. Removes Iodine in bloodstream. iii. Seafood has Iodine. Iodine is picked up by 1,2,3, or 4 molecules in hormones f. Goiter i. VERY COMMON ii. Enlarged thyroid gland iii. Producing hormones, overly active iv. Underactive and isn’t releasing hormones v. Not enough iodine in diet, fast metabolis
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