Abnormal Psychology Chapter 8 Textbook Notes

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San Jose State University
PSYC 110
Dr.Steven Del Chiaro

Chapter 8 Eating and Sleeping Disorders 1. Major Types of Eating Disorders a. Bulimia Nervosa i. Binges – Out of control eating episodes ii. Followed by self-induced vomiting, excessive use of laxatives, or other attempts to purge the food. b. Anorexia Nervosa i. Person eats nothing beyond minimal amounts of food, so body weight sometimes drops dangerously. 2. Bulimia Nervosa a. Symptoms i. Eating a large amount of food than other people would eat under similar circumstances. ii. Sense of lack of control over eating during the episode iii. Recurrent compensatory behavior to prevent weight gain: self-induced vomiting, misuse of laxatives, fasting, excessive exercise. iv. Occurs at least twice a week for 3 months b. Types i. Purging type: person regularly engage in self-induced vomiting or miseuse of laxatives, diuretics, or enemas ii. Nonpurging type: person used other inappropriate compensatory behaviors: fasting, exercise. c. Medical Consequences i. Salivary Gland Enlargement – caused by repeating vomiting, gives the face a chubby appearance ii. Eroded dental enamel iii. Electrolyte imbalance – chemical balance of bodily fluids, including sodium and potassium levels are imbalanced 1. If left untreated: cardiac arrthythmia (disrupted heartbeat), seizures, and renal (kidney) failure = ALL FATAL. 2. Normalization of eating habits will reverse the imbalance. iv. Intestinal problems from laxative abuse are serious. Include severe constipation or permanent colon damage. v. Marked calluses on their fingers or back of their hands from friction of contact with teeth and throat. d. Associated Psychological Disorders i. Anxiety and mood disorders ii. Social phobia or generalized anxiety disorder iii. Substance use disorders 3. Anorexia Nervosa a. Symptoms i. Refusal to maintain body weight at or above a minimally normal weight for age and height ii. Intense fear of gaining weight or becoming fat, even though underweight iii. Disturbance in the way in which one’s body weight/shape is experienced, undue influence of body weight of shape on self-evaluation, or denial of the seriousness of the current low body weight iv. Amenorrhea – absence of at least 3 consecutive menstrual cycles b. Types i. Restricting type – person does not regularly engage in binge eating or purging behavior ii. Binge-eating/purging type – person regularly engage in binge eating or purging behavior c. Medical Consequences i. Amenorrhea - Cessation of menstruation ii. Dry skin iii. Brittle hair or nails iv. Sensitivity to or intolerance of cold temperatures v. Lanugo – downy hair on the limbs and cheeks vi. Cardiovascular problems: low blood pressure and heart rate vii. Electrolyte imbalance and resulting cardiac and kidney problems d. Associated Psychological Disorders i. Anxiety disorders ii. Mood disorders iii. Current depression in 33% of cases iv. Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) 4. Binge-Eating Disorder a. Marked distress because of binge eating but do not engage in extreme compensatory behaviors b. Currently not in the DSM-IV-TR but is beginning its process to be. c. Could be a subtype of bulimia. 5. Statistics a. 90 to 95% with bulimia are women b. Most are white and middle to upper-middle class c. Age 15, and can start as early as 10 d. Males with bulimia have lager age of onset, mostly gay or bisexual males e. Male athletes in sports that require weight regulation f. Once anorexia develops, more chronic than bulimia. g. Most women will maintain low BMI and have distorted perceptions of shape and weight, continue to restrict their eating. h. Cross-Cultural Considerations i. Develop in immigrants who have recently moved to Western countries ii. Minority populations low compared to Caucasians. iii. Risks for Eating Disorders 1. Overweight 2. Higher social class 3. Acculturation to the majority iv. World is becoming more westernized. i. Developmental Considerations i. The ideal look in western countries for women is thin and prepubertal but when girls hit puberty, they gain weight in fat tissue. ii. Children under the age of 11 restrict fluid and food intake, not understanding the difference. Very dangerous. 6. Causes of Eating Disorders a. Social Dimensions i. The preferred shape of women during the 1960s and 1970s was thinner and more tubular than before. ii. 1970s Miss Americans are undernourished. iii. On TV, most females were thinner than average American women. iv. Today’s standards are increasing difficult to achieve because size and weight of average women has increased over the years with improved nutrition. v. If friends are dieting, you will most likely diet too. vi. Men think they have to be muscular and big and weigh heavier to be attractive vii. Dietary Restraint 1. Example: ballet dancers under extreme expectations to be thin. Teacher might tell students to become thinner. viii. Family Influences 1. “typical” family of someone with anorexia is successful, hard- driving, concerned about external appearances, and eager to maintain harmony. 2. Family members deny/ignore conflicts/negative feelings and tend to attribute their problems to other people 3. Mothers are “society’s messengers” in wanting their daughters to be thin. b. Biological Dimension i. Eating disorders run in families ii. Might inherit a tendency to be emotionally responsive to stressful life events iii. Might eat impulsively in an attempt to relieve stress and anxiety iv. Low levels of serotonergic activity c. Psychological Dimensions i. Women with eating disorders have a diminished sense of personal control and confidence in their own abilities and talents ii. Perfectionistic attitudes, learned from their families. iii. Preoccupied with how they appear to others iv. Perceive themselves as frauds. 7. Trea
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