Abnormal Psychology Chapter 12 Personality Disorders

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PSYC 110
Dr.Steven Del Chiaro

Chapter 12: personality Disorders 1. Personality Disorders a. Enduring patterns of perceiving, relating to, and thinking about the environment and oneself that are exhibited in a wide range of social and personal contexts and are inflexible and maladaptive, and cause significant functional impairment or subjective distress 2. Personality Disorder Clusters a. Personality Disorders divide into 3 groups/clusters b. Cluster A i. Odd of eccentric cluster ii. Paranoid, schizoid, and schizotypal personality disorder c. Cluster B i. Dramatic, emotional, or erratic cluster ii. Consists of antisocial, borderline, histrionic, and narcissistic personality disorders d. Cluster C i. Anxious or fearful cluster ii. Includes avoidant, dependent ,and obsessive-compulsive personality disorders 3. Statistics and Development a. Personality disorders found in 0.5% to 2.5% of general population b. Personality disorders originate in childhood and continue into adult years c. Maladaptive personality characteristics develop over time that create distress for affected person and draw attention of others d. Borderline personality disorder has volatile and unstable relationships, persistent problems in early childhood and frequent hospitalizations, unstable personal relationships, severe depression, and suicidal gestures. 4. Gender Differences a. Borderline personality disorders more likely in females b. Dependent personality disorders more often in females c. Issue of gender bias in diagnosing personality disorder 5. Comorbidity a. People with personality disorders tend to be diagnosed with more than one 6. Personality Disorders Under Study a. Some personality disorders have been proposed for inclusion in the DSM 7. Cluster A personality Disorders a. Paranoid Personality Disorder i. Symptoms 1. Excessively mistrustful and suspicious of others without any justification 2. Assume other people are out to harm or trick them 3. Tend not to confide in others 4. Pervasive unjustified distrust ii. Causes 1. Relatives of individuals with schizophrenia more likely to have 2. Early mistreatment or traumatic childhood experiences iii. Treatment 1. Cognitive therapy 2. No confirmed demonstrations that any form of treatment can significantly improve lives of people with his disorder b. Schizoid Personality Disorder i. Symptoms 1. Neither to desire nor to enjoy closeness with others, including romantic and sexual relationships 2. Appear cold and detached and not affected by praise or criticism. 3. Lack close friends or confidants other than first degree relatives 4. Takes pleasure in few or no activities ii. Causes 1. May be inherited and has impact on development 2. Abuse and neglect in childhood 3. Parents with autism or autism in person 4. Early problems with interpersonal relationships iii. Treatment 1. Social skill training 2. Role-playing, practice establishing and maintaining social relationships c. Schizotypal Personality Disorder i. Symptoms 1. Suspicious and have odd beliefs 2. Psychotic-like symptoms (believing everything relates to them personally) 3. Social deficits 4. Cognitive impairments or paranoia 5. Idea of reference – think insignificant events relate directly to them 6. Magical thinking – believing they are clairvoyant or telepathic ii. Causes 1. May have the schizophrenia gene, but lack of biological influences or environmental stresses cause them to have schizotypal personality disorder 2. Genetic and environment can strongly influence 3. Pregnant women exposure to influenza can increase chance 4. Damage on left hemisphere iii. Treatment 1. Medical and psychological treatments for depression 2. Antipsychotic medication, community treatment, social skills training, 3. Treatment does not help them improve over time, some will develop more characteristics of schizophrenia 8. Cluster B Personality Disorders a. Antisocial Personality Disorder i. Symptoms 1. Failure to conform to social norms with respect to lawful behaviors, repeatedly performing acts that leads to arrest 2. Deceitfulness (lying, use of aliases, conning others) 3. Impulsivity or failure to plan ahead 4. Irritability and aggressiveness 5. Reckless disregard for safety of self or others 6. Concistent irresponsibility 7. Lack of remorse, regret, empathy 8. Manic san delire – people with unusual emotional responses and impulsive rages but no deficits in reasoning ability 9. Conduct disorder – children who engage in behaviors that violate society’s norms, most often diagnosed in boys, become juvenile offenders ii. Causes 1. Genetic Influences a. Adopted children of felons become criminals themselves b. Gene-environment interaction. Genetic factors only important in the presence of certain environmental influences c. Endophenotype – underlying aspects of a disorder that might be more directly influenced by genes 2. Neurobiological Influences a. Underarousal hypothesis – psychopaths have abnormally low levels of cortical arousal b. Yerkes-Doson curve – people with either high or low levels of arousal tend to experience negative affect and perform poorly in many situations c. Fearlessness hypothesis – psychopaths possess a higher threshold for experiencing fear than most other individuals (things that greatly frighten normal people don’t affect them) 3. Psychological and Social Dimensions a. Once psychopaths set their sights on a reward goal, they will not deter from their goal even with signs that the goal is no longer achievable.
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