PSYC 110 Lecture Notes - Somatic Symptom Disorder, Prosocial Behavior, Schizotypal Personality Disorder

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6 Nov 2013
Chapter 12: personality Disorders
1. Personality Disorders
a. Enduring patterns of perceiving, relating to, and thinking about the environment
and oneself that are exhibited in a wide range of social and personal contexts and
are inflexible and maladaptive, and cause significant functional impairment or
subjective distress
2. Personality Disorder Clusters
a. Personality Disorders divide into 3 groups/clusters
b. Cluster A
i. Odd of eccentric cluster
ii. Paranoid, schizoid, and schizotypal personality disorder
c. Cluster B
i. Dramatic, emotional, or erratic cluster
ii. Consists of antisocial, borderline, histrionic, and narcissistic personality
d. Cluster C
i. Anxious or fearful cluster
ii. Includes avoidant, dependent ,and obsessive-compulsive personality
3. Statistics and Development
a. Personality disorders found in 0.5% to 2.5% of general population
b. Personality disorders originate in childhood and continue into adult years
c. Maladaptive personality characteristics develop over time that create distress for
affected person and draw attention of others
d. Borderline personality disorder has volatile and unstable relationships, persistent
problems in early childhood and frequent hospitalizations, unstable personal
relationships, severe depression, and suicidal gestures.
4. Gender Differences
a. Borderline personality disorders more likely in females
b. Dependent personality disorders more often in females
c. Issue of gender bias in diagnosing personality disorder
5. Comorbidity
a. People with personality disorders tend to be diagnosed with more than one
6. Personality Disorders Under Study
a. Some personality disorders have been proposed for inclusion in the DSM
7. Cluster A personality Disorders
a. Paranoid Personality Disorder
i. Symptoms
1. Excessively mistrustful and suspicious of others without any
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2. Assume other people are out to harm or trick them
3. Tend not to confide in others
4. Pervasive unjustified distrust
ii. Causes
1. Relatives of individuals with schizophrenia more likely to have
2. Early mistreatment or traumatic childhood experiences
iii. Treatment
1. Cognitive therapy
2. No confirmed demonstrations that any form of treatment can
significantly improve lives of people with his disorder
b. Schizoid Personality Disorder
i. Symptoms
1. Neither to desire nor to enjoy closeness with others, including
romantic and sexual relationships
2. Appear cold and detached and not affected by praise or criticism.
3. Lack close friends or confidants other than first degree relatives
4. Takes pleasure in few or no activities
ii. Causes
1. May be inherited and has impact on development
2. Abuse and neglect in childhood
3. Parents with autism or autism in person
4. Early problems with interpersonal relationships
iii. Treatment
1. Social skill training
2. Role-playing, practice establishing and maintaining social
c. Schizotypal Personality Disorder
i. Symptoms
1. Suspicious and have odd beliefs
2. Psychotic-like symptoms (believing everything relates to them
3. Social deficits
4. Cognitive impairments or paranoia
5. Idea of reference think insignificant events relate directly to them
6. Magical thinking believing they are clairvoyant or telepathic
ii. Causes
1. May have the schizophrenia gene, but lack of biological influences
or environmental stresses cause them to have schizotypal
personality disorder
2. Genetic and environment can strongly influence
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