HIST 1110 Lecture 2: Notes 3/20-5/3

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HIST 1110
Richard Allington

Martha Briscoe History 1110-04 March 20, 2017 March 20, 2017 Class Notes: Empires I I) Terms to Know: a. Rebellion of Wang Mang (9 AD) b. Five Pecks of Rice Rebellion (184 AD) c. Sui Dynasty (589 AD) d. Chandragupta I (330-335 AD) e. Varahamihira (505-587 AD) II) State of the Han Empire a. State-sponsored Confucianism i. Schools begin to develop based on Confucian philosophy ii. Emergence of standardized testing in Confucian ethics 1. Determined the job you had in society b. Development of trade links with the West c. Expansion into Korea and Vietnam d. Cultural achievements under the Han i. Gunpowder ii. Education iii. Transport iv. Medicine III) Challenges to the Han Dynasty a. Rebellion of Wang Mang (9 AD) i. Under the later Han ii. When they expand to Vietnam and Korea iii. Unsuccessful peasant rebellion b. Five Pecks of the Rice Rebellion (184 AD) i. Peasant rebellion  eventually taken over by generals ii. Han Empire is overthrown and divided into 3 parts on 208 AD 1. Parallels the Roman Empire IV) Rise of the Sui Dynasty a. Reunification (589 AD) of the Chinese Empire i. Almost 300 years later  impressive that there is still an identity b. Successful because of beaurocratic efficiency and technological advances i. Ships: larger than any other ships at the time ii. The Great Wall iii. Standardized Coinage V) Proliferation of Buddhism a. Spreads to India as far as Shri Lanka b. Unsure how the Mauryan Empire fell (around the time of Marcus Aurelius) c. When the Han falls, people begin to look to Buddhism for solutions i. As it moves into India: combines a lot with Hinduism ii. Buddhism is eventually seen as a cult within Hinduism VI) Rise of the Gupta Empire a. Origins in Magadha b. Srigupta (240-280 AD) i. Begins the Empire ii. Inherits a lot from the Afghanistan area c. Chandragupta I (320-335 AD) i. Successful because he implements Western Military tactics ii. Marries a princess that expands his Empire iii. Takes Iron mines into his Empire that he sells and makes profits to the coast and uses to benefit his military iv. Empire covers almost all of India d. Samudragupta (335-380 AD) e. Gupta Economy: successful mainly because of trade i. Exports: 1. Cotton, spices 2. Gems and Pearls 3. Steel and Precious metals ii. Imports: 1. China: silk and plants 2. Africa: Ivory iii. Religion iv. Medicine: plants ( many from China) v. Literature vi. Education 1. Varahamihira, Astronomy vii. Art and Architecture 1. Hindu temples, usually with a pinnacle at the top to connect the natural world with the supernatural world 2. Ajanta Caves: Buddhist temples in caves f. Fall of the Gupta Empire (around 550 AD) i. Due to external pressures 1. Huns defeat many empires before the Gupta Empire 2. People became less willing to defend the Empire VII) Chinese Grand Canal a. Built by the Sui Dynasty b. Connects the agricultural lands of China to support the Capital which is not built on a major river for the first time c. Completed in 604 AD, took about 5 million people to build it d. Marks a shift in Chinese government i. Power shifts away from the River valleys PAPER: no more than 3 pages FOOTNOTES: author, title of the text, and page number for sources March 22, 2017 Class Notes: Empires II I) Terms to Know: a. The Council of Nicaea (325 AD) b. The Goths c. The Battle of Adrianople (378 AD) d. The Sack of Rome (410 AD) e. Pope Leo the Great (400-461 AD) II) Early Christian Heresies a. Donatist: Heresy that says your Baptism might not be valid b. Ebonism: Jesus was not God c. Docetism: Jesus was not human d. Arianism: Jesus was not fully God i. First heresy, influenced by Hellenistic thinking ii. Hard to communicate to those who are not Jews iii. Led by Arius 1. Arius teaches people of the North, they believe in Arian Christianity  problems when the Goths invade the empire e. Apollinarianism: Jesus was not fully human f. Nestorianism: Jesus was 2 distinct Persons i. g. Eutychianism: Jesus had one blended nature III) Council of Nicaea (325 AD) a. Bishops and Constantine Debated Heresies b. Bishops accept what is true and create the Nicene Creed i. Shows how Christianity is changing c. Sabellianism: Jesus was not different from God the Father i. Condemned as wrong d. Heresies get worse after Constantine dies after 330 AD i. Next emperors agree more with Arianism ii. Bishops are appointed by Emperors  no separation of Church and State in the eastern Empire IV) Emergence of Monophysitism a. Jesus was basically God, but had the appearance of being human i. Problem: where is the human sacrifice to redeem humans? b. Heresy is condemned at the Council of Chalcedon (451 AD) i. Although Bishop of Rome, Leo the Great, is not there, he sends people to the council with a message and people start to turn away from Monophysitism ii. From this point on: Bishop of Rome is very important in defining the Christian beliefs  emergence of the Papacy V) Romans and Barbarians: a. Constantine moves the Empire’s Capital to the East: Constantinople b. Gothic entry into the Empire (375 AD) c. Huns are invading the Gothic regions  Gothic peoples flee into the Roman Empire i. Visigoths ask the Emperor Valens if they can come into the Empire as allies of Rome for safety from the Huns 1. Supposed to be a few people in controlled immigration 2. Roman troops loose control & about 1 million enter a. Reassert authority over the Visigoths and force them to live in territories where it is difficult for them to live b. Eventually the Goths rebel against the Romans d. Battle of Adrianople (378 AD) i. When you join the army: you leave everything behind and become part of the military, and you became a Roman 1. Valens doesn’t do this with the Visigoths  they don’t assume a Roman identity ii. The Goths revolt from inside the Empire iii. Valens brother (Empire of the West) is coming to help 1. Valens decides not to wait for them and is defeated by the Visigoths iv. Western Empire saves the Roman Empire, and they don’t fall yet VI) Sack of Rome (410 AD) a. Alaric is the leader of the Visigoths of the Eastern Empire i. Leaves the East and comes to the west ii. Sacks the city of Rome iii. Rome falls and the Roman culture begins to fizzle and the stability of the empire is falling apart 1. Cause: Rome failing to defend their borders iv. MARKS THE END OF THE ANCIENT WORLD and the beginning of the Medieval World VII) Results of the Invasions a. Walls of Constantinople i. 3 walls to defend the city ii. Walls in general are a sign that things are rocky and unstable b. Deposition of the final Roman emperor in the West (476) i. This was a gradual change as the empire fell c. Change in order i. No more centralization 1. Taxation, trade, currency and inflation 2. Army and borders ii. No more certainty as to who is governing what iii. The empire is divided accidentally into different kingdoms iv. Religious disunity between Goths and Christians v. Loss of Roman Identity vi. Education stops 1. Texts being used and practices disappear 2. Texts are preserved in the East but lost in the West March 29, 2017 Class Notes: The Expansion of Islam I) Terms to Know a. Caliph Abu Bakr (632-634) b. Emperor Heraclius (610-634) c. General Khalib ibn al Walid (592-642) d. Emperor Yazdgerd III (632-651) e. The Battle of Yarmuk (680) II) Succession after the death of Muhammad a. Death of Muhammad (632) i. Crisis of Islamic disunity b. Meccan and Medinan factions i. Abu Bakr unites these two factions as their leader and successor of Muhammad c. Factions in General i. Islam is the only thing uniting the people of Arabia ii. They previously had many separate tribes iii. Spiritual agreement without political unity: political allegiance is to Muhammad the prophet, but not to successors 1. Tension about what makes Islam different 2. Separation of politics and religion d. Rise of Abu Bakr i. Faithful follower within Mecca ii. Childhood friend of Muhammad iii. Muhammad assigns him the role of leading prayers when he is too week 1. Key part of his legitimacy 2. Next leader of the Islamic community iv. Title of Caliph: name for successors of Muhammad 1. Dies 2 years later e. Unification of the Ridda Wars i. Violent wars ii. Necessary to end the idea that the Arabian Peninsula would divide again into different tribes iii. Introduces a penalty of death for apostasy iv. More tolerant that people who have never believed than people who are heretics or people who leave III) The State of the Byzantine Empire a. Fall of the Western Empire 476 AD i. Broken up into smaller kingdoms b. State of the East: Byzantine Empire i. Don’t see themselves as any different than the Roman Empire ii. Around 500 AD, looks as if the empire is recovering 1. Barbarians leave, walls are built, divisions within Christianity have somewhat died down iii. Empire Anastasius rebuilds the empire and develops a new currency, the empire has a surplus around the time of his death c. Rise of Justinian i. Restoration of the west by 550 AD 1. Conquers Africa, Italy, and Spain 2. They are so far away: The Empire is strong and stable to be able to support them from a distance ii. Soon after begins to run out of money 1. Conquering territories brings economic problems (costs to conquer, areas don’t bring in any wealth) 2. Religious problems: orthodox Christianity begins to rise a. Justinian tries to imprison all bishops of the other Christian factions b. Theodora his wife, lets them all go when he is sick iii. Eastern Border: Persian Empire (Sassanid Empire) 1. Signs perpetual treaty with the Persians a. Do definite endpoint b. Gives 5.5 tons of gold 2. Persians spend all the money and then begin to attack the Byzantine Empire iv. Black Death (550-600) 1. Spreads from Eastern Asia a. Hurts both the Persians and the Byzantines b. Flees travel on rats, prefer rats to humans 2. Byzantine struggles 3. Most effective in Urban places v. Dies around 565 and doesn’t have to deal with anything IV) Byzantine War with Persia a. Overthrow Hormizd IV by Bahram i. Bahram is defeated by the Romans, and Hormizd flips out 1. Sends him a message and a dress ii. Bahram takes army to Persian capital of Ctesiphon and overflows him iii. Restoration by Maurice (roman ruler) 1. Hormizd says “If you put me on the throne, there will be peace on the Roman Eastern border” 2. They overthrow Bahram and restore everything, Hormizd keeps promise and makes peace with the Romans iv. Hormizd makes changes and budget cuts the army 1. Army rebels and overthrows Maurice in Constantinople by Phocas (602 AD) 2. Phocas sucks, just the leader of a mob, doesn’t know how to rule b. Khosrau II’s Persian Invasion, led by Shahim and Shahruaraz i. Invades the byzantine empire and since Phocas doesn’t know how to handle it, the Persians easily win ii. Take over everything but the walled cities V) Restoration of Heraclius a. Governor of Egypt and becomes Emperor (610) i. Tries to make peace with Khosrau II ii. Khosrau denies his plea, tries to completely destroy the Romans b. Heraclius marches from Constantinople to the Persian Empire and wins against the Persians at Nineveh (630 AD) (around the time when Muhammad goes to Mecca and is gaining power) i. Against all odds ii. Achieve peace with Persians by Khosrau’s son c. Both the Byzantine and Persian Empires are exhausted i. Not equipped to handle Islamic invasions VI) Invasions of the Persian Empire a. Caliph Umar (634-644) b. Khalib ibn al Walid invades the Persian Empire i. The battle of Qadisiyyah (636 AD) 1. Persians bring in Elephants, but Muslims are very unified 2. Persian line is broken and Muslims are able to take over Babylon and the Persian Capital 3. Persians retreat into the original Persian Empire ii. New Caliph, Uthman (644-656) 1. After Umar is assassinated by Piruz Nahavandi (644) iii. Complete the conquest of the Persian Empire (651) 1. Death of Persian Emperor Yazgerd III (651) a. Runs out of troops and is murdered by the Muslim army VII) Defeat of the Byzantine Empire a. Initial defeat (634) i. Huge warning sign ii. Camels help the Muslims iii. Heraclius realizes that his main goal should be to divide up the Islamic army in the future b. Muslim conquest of the Levantine cities c. Decisive defeat at Yarmuk (636) i. On the edge of the ravine ii. Al Walid has to keep the Muslims from being defeated iii. On day 5: Muslims cavalry drives off the Byzantine cavalry 1. Muslims trap them at the exits 2. Byzantines lose the battle  Empire becomes smaller d. Byzantine retreat from the Levant i. Protected in Anatolia by the Muslims ii. Lets the Muslims keep conquering in the middle East iii. Egypt falls to the Muslims in 641 AD April 3, 2017 Class Notes: Expansion of Islam I) Terms to Know: a. The First Fitna (656-661 AD) b. Caliph Muawiyah I (661-680 AD) c. Greek Fire d. The Battle of Tours (732 AD) e. The Abbasid Revolution (750 AD) II) Islamic Conquests in India a. Aftermath of the Gupta Empire i. Perfect time for Islam to arise because the Indian empire is also falling b. Conquest of the Indus Valley by 750 AD i. Through the mountain areas ii. Settlement of Islam within western India: turns into modern day Pakistan iii. West: Muslim and East: Hindu c. Cultural exchange between India and the Mediterranean i. Connections being revived, because there is a unified network across the middle east by the Mediterranean III) First Fitna a. Distinctions between Shia and Sunni Islam i. Assassination of Uthman, 656 (kharwarij) 1. Uthman is a governor, not a general like the other Caliphs 2. Tries to rule from Medina, the middle of the Empire 3. People are not happy that he doesn’t have any military power/position 4. Assassins break into his house and kill him and his wife ii. Succession of Ali: Shia tradition that follows biological ties 1. Ali is going to be elected as successor of Muhammad a. Governor of Medina 2. At the same time: Muawiyah is crowned Caliph in Jerusalem a. Muawiyah is a military general in Syria b. Why Jerusalem and not Medina? i. Muhammad had a connection to the Abrahamic roots: he had a vision that he would come here and be taken up ii. Shift out of the Middle East and into the Mediterranean 3. Assassination of Ali in 661 by the Kharwarij (radical Islamic) a. Argue that Ali is not a true successor because he doesn’t fight iii. No more conflict between Muawiyah and another potential Caliph: Sunni tradition that follows that he is a natural leader 1. Muawiyah not one of the first true believers in Islam a. Pursued Muhammad when he fled to Mecca b. Did not convert until Muhammad conquered Medina c. Not accepted by the followers of Ali IV) Islamic Western Expansion a. Siege of Constantinople, 717-718 AD i. Byzantines are able to defeat the Muslim navy with Greek fire 1. Muslim army on the opposite side has no back up: they end up starving and dying  ships get nailed by a volcano, only 5 Muslim ships make it back. Muslims = not good at sea warfare b. Conquest of North Africa (708 AD) i. Conquer Carthage and move further south 1. Convert the native peoples of North Africa, knows as the Berbers 2. Source of difficulty: Arabs are ruling over people who are not Arab a. People are feeling marginalized that they are not Arabs even though they are Muslims c. Conquest of Spain (711 AD) by Tariq ibn Zayid i. The Spanish have a civil war ii. One side makes an alliance with the Muslims in North Africa 1. Help them out, defeat the Visigoths, and then conquer most of Spain V) Islamic Defeats a. Battle of Covadonga (722 AD) i. Miraculous victory by the Spanish Christians ii. Christians see this as a huge victory and a cultural memory to live off of iii. Muslims are not effected by this b. Battle of Tours (732 AD) i. Charles Martel (king of a kingdom in Spain) knew that the Muslims were going to come back with a larger army 1. Muslim army is over confident ii. Charles Martel: starts fighting in the forest which is difficult for Muslims who have horses  Martel has little cavalry and no horses 1. Spaniards win VI) Umayyad Caliphate (Umayyad is Muawiyah family name) a. Standard coinage b. Common language c. Religious toleration under the jizya i. Abrahamic religions are able to continue to practice as long as they pay this tax  not allowed to promote their religion ii. If you’re not, its very hard for you to practice your faith d. The Abbasid Revolution (750 AD) i. Umayyad’s are centered in Damascus e. The Escape of Abd al Rahman I i. Escape from the fall of Umayyad’s by the Abbasid ii. Abd al Rahman crosses the River and goes to Spain 1. His brother has difficulties, in the river, is called back by Abbasid’s and is killed iii. Abd al Rahman I starts his own Caliph in the West (Spain) VII) Islamic Advances a. Pottery: you have to fire it twice, very intricate b. Paper: spread from China to all over the west, Baghdad is a capital because people preserve texts there April 5, 2017 Class Notes: The Emergence of Western Europe I) Terms to Know: a. Al Khwarizimi (780-850) b. Avicenna (980-1037) c. Charlemagne (768-814) d. Carolingian Miniscule e. Louis the Pious (814-840) II) Abbasid Culture a. Capital in Baghdad is a center of learning b. Meeting point for different cultures  Greek, Persia, and Indian i. They also travel to Egypt, library of Alexandria c. Medicine i. Christians translate Greek medicinal texts into Arabic d. Mathematics and Astronomy i. Al Khwarizimi: algebra and Arabic numbers ii. 12 century: Earliest map of the world e. Literature: i. Stories of the Arabian Nights: Aladdin, Sinbad the Sailor f. Philosophy: i. Al Farabi (872-950) ii. Avicenna (980-1037) 1. Doesn’t believe in immortality 2. No paradise when you die  condemned as a heretic iii. Averroes (1126-1198) 1. Promoter of Aristotle 2. Islam doesn’t like Aristotle’s approach: you gain knowledge from experience III) Rise of the Carolingians a. Emperor dies and he divides his empire into smaller pieces and then their sons divide it, etc.  Frankish empire grows smaller and smaller b. Office of mayor of the Palace often become more powerful than Kings i. Charles Martel (726-751) 1. Dies, does not become king ii. Pepin I (751-768) 1. ^His son, dethrones the current king and becomes the King by “order” of the Pope 2. Pope anoints him with oil at the coronation ceremony: attaching the Church and the State  has grace to carry out his position 3. Practices and promotes Christianity during his reign a. A lot of Church leaders are ill equipped b. Reforms the Church according to the Roman Rite  successors of the Apostles iii. Charlemagne (768-814) 1. Becomes Ruler after Pepin dies, expands the Frankish Empire a. Into Germany, Hungary, Italy (Rome), parts of Spain 2. Empire that is based in north and western Europe for the first time in history a. Based in barbarian and gothic practices, Christianity, and ancient Roman traditions 3. Introduces heavily armed men on horses  image of medieval warfare 4. Recognizes literacy is necessary for the practice of Christianity a. Reforms of the clergy b. Reforms in education i. Carried out in Monasteries, funded by the Empire ii. People from all over come to learn in his Empire iii. Educates boys and girls, not just the wealthiest iv. Carolingian Miniscule: 1. Legible Medieval text, incredibly consistent handwriting v. Stability to carry out this work thanks to their military successes c. Einhard: wrote a biography of Charlemagne d. Alcuin: Came from northern England to learn e. Necessary building blocks of education i. Trivium: Grammar, logic, and rhetoric ii. Quadrivium: music, astronomy, math, and geometry iii. Foundation for secular learning 1. Basic skills first, then becomes more advanced IV) Decline of Carolingian Empire a. Louis the Pious (814-840) i. Rules too leniently, the empire begins to decline ii. Splits between his sons who fight each other b. The Treaty of Verdun (843) i. Settles the conflict between the sons ii. Splits territory into France and Germany and a small Kingdom in the middle 1. Verdun (in the middle) fought over violently in WWI V) The Vikings a. A main reason why the Carolingian Empire breaks up b. Left Scandinavia: its barren, kingdoms are unified and they can organize expeditions across Europe i. Usually just want to plunder, not to trade ii. Target the monasteries  monks are killed or enslaved c. Gradually having a centralized emperor is a disadvantage because he can’t cover everything i. Local lords rise  abuse their power of protecting the people April 10, 2017 Class Notes: The Papacy and the Crusades I) Terms to Know: a. Cluny Abbey (910 AD) b. The Fatimid Caliphate (909-1171 AD) c. The Seljuk Empire (950-1135 AD) d. Urban II (1088-1099 AD) e. The Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem (1099 AD) II) Eleventh-Century Settlement a. Settlement of Normandy (911 AD) i. Local lords to help defend you against the Vikings ii. Local lords are generally fighting with each other to become more powerful  high levels of violence and instability 1. Ile-de-France is the only area ruled by Charlemagne’s heirs iii. Vikings decide to settle and Europeans make a deal with Rollo, the head of the Vikings, and they settle as Normans in Normandy 1. They take over the Anglo-Saxon kingdom in 1066 AD b. Political Fragmentation c. Battle of Hastings (1066 AD) III) Monastic Reforms a. Political fragmentation in Europe i. People realize the problem with Christianity is that people are too consumed by material desires ii. Charlemagne picks Bishops and Abbots to rule territories  They are loyal to the King instead of the church 1. Leads them to become more materialistic b. Turning to Christianity i. Church should be independent of the secular world ii. Foundation and expansion of the Abbey of Cluny 910 AD 1. Agenda of Church Independence 2. People practice the Benedictine rule 3. Completely separate from material society a. Christianity is practice in an authentic way b. Nobleman give money in hopes the monks will return the favor with prayers c. Monastery becomes powerful IV) Papal Reform a. Election of Pope Leo IX (1049) i. First monk from the Abbey of Cluny to become Pope ii. Previously: 1. Papacy is very corrupt: Popes getting married, having children, digging up bodies, etc. iii. Eastern Carolingian Empire: held together and more coherent 1. Otto the Great: Eastern Emperor a. Comes to Rome to be crowned in Rome like Charlemagne b. Papacy is extremely corrupt c. He takes out the family in charge: BUT an emperor does this iv. Leo has to be elected by popularity of the Emperor and the people v. Wants to change  Pope should be elected by the cardinals 1. Papacy is independent of secular control vi. **Pope Leo I was the first to make the Bishop of Rome more important b. Eastern Orthodox Schism in 1054 AD i. Reject the idea that the Pope is more powerful than the other Apostolic Sees c. The Investiture Controversy i. Problem: the Church wants to be independent of the King, but they are still expected to pay taxes, etc. ii. King Henry IV is excommunicated by Pope Gregory VII 1. King Henry marches with an army, Pope Gregory turns to Normans for help  defeat Henry, but Vikings sack Rome 2. Gregory goes into exile 3. The Crusades emerge V) Calling of the First Crusade a. The Battle of Manzikert (1076 AD) i. Muslims are invading the Byzantine Empire ii. Emperor Alexius I (1081- 1118 AD): Appeals to Western Christianity for help b. Presents Pope Urban II (1088 AD) with an opportunity to reunite the eastern and western churches i. Hears of a Muslim ruler who is persecuting Christians in Jerusalem ii. Wants to unite them for the cause of Christianity c. Council of Clermont (1095 AD) i. Bishops are trying to decrease violence within the empires ii. Urban: Take up the symbol of the cross and fight for Christ in Jerusalem VI) Crusaders and the Crusade a. The type of crusaders and the cost of crusading nd rd i. Previous thought: Most of people going onto Crusades were 2 or 3 sons of noble families who had nothing to loose  might gain something in the East ii. Now we know: first sons sold land and gave up their lives in the west, motivated by piety and devotion to fight for Christianity 1. Gained nothing, were poorer when they returned b. Victory at Antioch and Jerusalem (1099 AD) i. Bohemond Viking ruler: leads army that can get into the cities, but can’t take over the centers because Muslims are still dwelling there 1. Crusaders are left alone 2. Dream: holy lands are here in Antioch, they all go to the site and dig to find something a. Find a “relic” and decide to face the Muslim army again b. Defeat the Muslims and they hang out longer and siege Jerusalem more 3. Take over Jerusalem in 1099 AD c. Alexius expects the land for the Byzantine Empire d. Crusaders say “no” and start the Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem VII) State of the Muslim World: a. Fragmentation of the Abbasid Caliphate i. Breakaway of the Muslim territories of North Africa and Spain ii. In 870 AD: New Shi’ite Kingdom in Egypt 1. Ruling elites are Shi’ites who believe their lineage is from Mohammad’s daughter Fatima iii. Loss of Abbasid political power 1. In the far east and the far west, people do not rely on the Abbasid’s b. Persian Invaders: i. Buyid Turks ii. Seljuk Turks 1. Move into the Abbasid empire from the north 2. Take over large areas of Persia and Mesopotamia 3. Seljuk empire begins to divide 3 years before the Crusades begin a. **key to why the first crusade is successful VIII) Christian-Muslim relations and perceptions a. Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem i. Christians are challenged because they are always in the minority: Jews and Muslims out number them 1. Many Christians leave the Holy Land afterward b. Religious demographics: more tolerance in this area than other parts of the world i. Judged by people of your same religious demographics ii. Many Muslims would rather live under Christian rule than Seljuk Turks c. Western ideas are imported to this area: i. Identities ii. Political structures iii. Agriculture iv. Education d. Levantine culture: i. Clothes ii. Diets iii. Languages: Arabic and Greek April 12, 2017 Class Notes: Medieval Warfare and Economics I) Terms to Know: a. Zengi b. The Battle of Hattin (1187) c. The Fourth Crusade (1204) d. Market Towns e. Castle Keeps II) The Muslim Revival a. Zengi: a Kurdish man who i. Atabeg of Mosul and Aleppo
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