Class Notes (806,815)
United States (312,228)
Biology (2)
BI 361 (2)
All (2)
Reference Guide

Lab Values - Reference Guides

2 Pages
Unlock Document

Southern Oregon University
BI 361

permacharts TM L a bV a lu e s Lab Values for a Non-Pregnant Adult Lab Test Normal Values Applications Sample Collection Trauma labs – •Type & cross •ABG • CBC • COAGS(PT/PTT) • BUN • CREAT • LYTES • ETOH •TOXSCREEN • UA• HCG Rainbow Medication levels – •Acetaminophen 10–30 µg/mL • Digoxin 0.5–2.2 ng/mL • Gentamicin 5–10 µg/mL • Lithium 0.5-1.7 mL red-top •Phenobarbital 10–40 µg/mL • Pheytoin 10–20 µg/mL •Tegretol 4–12 µg.mL •Theophylline 10–20 µg/mL ARTERIAL BLOOD GASES pH 7.35–7.45 ›Alkalosis • flAcidosis Use heparinized syringe PaO2 75–100 mm Hg ›Polycythemia • flAnemia (Note: 65–80 mm Hg over 60 yrs old > 60 mm Hg with COPDers) and put on ice; PaCO2 35–45 mm Hg ›Respiratory acidosis = Hypoventi2ation/CO retention by lungs; COPD,cardiac,CNS,pulmonary etransportASAP flRespiratory alkalosis = Hyperventilation; pain,anxiety,fever,pulmonary embolism Bicarbonate (H3O 22–26 mEq/L ›Metabolic alkalosis:emesis,NGT suction,diuretics; renal retention of too much bicarbonate 22–26 mmol/L flMetabolic acidosis:DKA,ARF,burns,diarrhea,shock 0 saturation 92–100% Arterial:95–98 % •Venous:60–85 % • Base exchange 0 +/- 2 mmol/L 2 CARDIAC ENZYMES (CPK) M 20-170,F 10-135 IU/L ›AMI (Initial Rise–3-4hrs,Peak–18-24hrs,Normal– 72hrs),unstable angina,shock,malignant hypeCK isoforms:lavender-top Creatine phosphokinase CK–MB:0–7% of total CPK myopathies,myocarditis,post exercise,IMinjections,recent surgery,athletes with greater musCK5 mL red,red-marbled or gold Note: Isoenzymes normal levels:CK–MB:heart = 0–7 • CK–MM:skeletal muscle = 5–70 • CK–BB:braQD ¥ 3 days,then 1 week Erythrocyte sediment rat0 – < 20 mm/hour ›Rheumatoid arthritis,infection,inflammation,all collagen connective tissue diseases (e.g.,3 mL lavender-top (arliest indicator of diM < 15,F < 20 mm/hr flCongestive heart failure,sickle cell anemia (Note: Rates increase with age) Lactate dehydrogenase 105–150 units/L ›Cardiac,renal,skeletal muscle,brain,liver,lung disorders 5 mL+ red, red-marbled or gold LDH 1 > LDH 2 = MI (45–100 units/L) Slight increase:hepatitis,cirrhosis,jaundice due to obstruction Record time on lab sheet Troponin I. 0–0.4 µg/L •A regulatory protein released when cardiac muscle cell necrosis occurs 5 mL+ red, red-marbled or gold Troponin T. 0.0-0.1 µg/L •Appears 1–3 hrs after an MI and remains elevated for 10–14 days Record time on lab sheet COMPLETE BLOOD COUNT M 4.0–6.0 million/µL ›Polycythemia,COPD,dehydration,hemoconcentration,high altitude,sickle cell anemia (12–17,003 mL lavender-top Red blood cells F 3.0–5.0 million/µL flAnemia,bone marrow suppression,hemorrhage,leukemias,multiple myeloma,renal failure,overhydration WBC; Leukocytes WBC 4.500–11,000/µL ›Acute infection,trauma,leukemias • flAIDS,bone marrow suppression,radiation 3 mL lavender-top 3 Neutrophils 50–75% Neutros 3000–7000/mm ›Septicemia,appendicitis,bacterial infection,myelocytic leukemia,stress response,ischemic n3 mLlavender-top (polys) flViral infection,acute lymphocytic leukemia Lymphocytes 20–40% Lymphos 1000–4000/mm3 ›Infections,mono,mumps,Rubella,TB,hepatitis,CMV,URI,lymphocytic leukemia 3 mLlavender-top flRenal failure,Hodgkin’s,HIV,AIDS (Note: >7000 or < 500,place patient in reverse isolation) Monocytes 2–8% Monocytes 100–500/mm3 ›TB,hepatitis,malaria,Rocky Mountain Fever,rheumatoid arthritis,Lupus,lymphomas,leukemia,mu3 mL lavender-top 3 Eosinophils 1–4% Eosinophils 50–400/mm ›Asthma/drug reaction,hook & ringworms,Hodgkin’s,multiple myeloma,post-splenectomy 3 mL lavender-top flStress response,shock,burns Basophils 0.5–1% Basophils 25–100/mm ›Leukemia,myelomas (Note: Contain large amounts of histamine used in hypersensitivity react3 mL lavender-top (mast cells) ANC (Absolute Neutrophil Count):Granucyte # < 500–1000/mm • Place patient in Neutropenic precautions (i.e.,no fresh fruits,flowers in room) Hemoglobin (Hgb) M 14–18 g/dL ›Polycythemia,chronic pulmonary disease,CHF,people living at high altitudes,dehydration,sho3 mL lavender-top @ 8 or flBlood transfusioF 12–16 g/dL flAnemia,blood loss,immunocompromised,renal failure,acute sequestration syndrome in sickle cell anemia, m vegetarian diet,overhydration caused by excessive IV fluids o Hematocrit (Hct) M 40–50 % ›Polycythemia,dehydration,fever,COPD 3 mL lavender-top c @ 25 or flBlood transfusiF 37–47% flAnemia,cirrhosis of the liver,immunocompromised,renal failure,overhydration,pregnancy,prolonged hemorrhage, vegetarian diet,IVFs of crystalloid or colloid solutions instead of blood . COAGULATION: platelets 100,000–450,000/mm3 ›Polycythemia,cancer,post-splenectomy,rheumatoid arthritis,infections,TB,hemorrhage,living 3 mL lavender-top or s @ 20 or flPlatelet transfusion (Kids:100,000–300flAplastic anemia,pneumonia,HIV,thrombocytopenia,DIC,acute leukemias,bone marrow cancer,chem2.7 mL light blue t Prothrombin (PT) 10–15 seconds ›Liver disease,Vitamin Kdeficiency,alcohol abuse,anabolic steroids,salicylates,DIC(CoumadinTx.OKat 1.5–2¥norm) 2.7 mL light blue r (11–16 seconds) flClotting disorders,antihistamines,diuretics Partial thromboplastin time 30–45 seconds ›Vitamin K deficiency,liver disease,DIC,hemophilia,leukemia (heparinTx.OK at 1.5–2.5¥ norma2.7 mL light blue a (PTT); activated PTT (25–35 seconds aPTT) flExtensive cancer,hemorrhage,thrombocytopenia,multiple myeloma h International Normalized2.0–3.0,2.5–3.5 •Anticoagulant therapy guidelines •Therapeutic @ 2.0–3.0 to prevent DVT,AMI,PAD,A Fib 2.7 mL light blue Ratio (INR) •Therapeutic @ 2.5–3.5 for mechanical valves c BLOOD CHEM++TRY“lytes” 8.6–10.0 mg/dL ›Cancer,renal failure,oliguric phase,parathyroid gland tumor,Vitamin D toxicity (Note: 2.1–4 mL + red-marble or gold a Calcium (Ca ) 4.5–5.5 mEq/L flOsteoporosis,acute pancreatitis,malabsorption,hypoparathyroidism,Vitamin D deficiency Chloride (Cl ) 98–108 mmol/L (96–112) ›Dehydration,anemia,congestive heart failure,IVF with chloride 4 mL + red-top,red-marble m 98–110 mEq/L flDiarrhea,vomiting,fever,ulcerative colitis,pyelonephritis,Addison’s Disease,NGT,overhydration r Potassium (K+) 3.5–5.0 mmol/L ›Acute renal failure,extensive tissue damage,Addison’s Disease,hemolysis,Diabetes Mellitus,tumor lysis syndrome 4 mL + red-marble or gold 3.5–5.0 mEq/L flDiarrhea,vomiting,malabsorption,starvation,prolonged diuretics or corticosteroid use e + p Sodium (Na ) 135–145 mmol/L ›Renal failure:oliguric,Cushing’s,prolonged corticosteroid therapy,dehydration,IVF with Na 4 mL + red-marble or gold 135–145 mEq/L flRenal failure:polyuric,diaphoresis,diarrhea,vomiting,Addison’s,SIADH,overhydration,NGT,CHF Carbon dioxide (2O ) 22–32 mEq/L ›Metabolic alkalosis (due to excessive vomiting or gastric suctioning),respiratory acidosis4 mL + red-marble or gold or 23–29 mmol/L flMetabolic acidosis (due to severe diarrhea),respiratory alkalosis (due to hyperventilationGreen heparinized Magnesium (Mg ) 1.5–3.0 mg/dL ›Renal failure (Note: High levels have neurological side effect of seizures; know Mg drugs (antacids),find alternates) 4 mL + red-marble or gold 1.5–2.5 mEq/L flAlcohol abuse,DM,hyperaldosteronism (Note: 0.7–1.2 mmol/L) -- Phosphorous (P4 ) 1.8–2.6 mEq/L ›Renal failure,hypoparathyroidism,healing fractures,diabetic acidosis,high intestinal obstruction,tumor lysis syndrome 4 mL + red-marble or gold (serum) 3.0–4.5 mg/dL (atomic) flMalnutrition,malabsorption,hyperparathyroidism (Note: 0.87–1.45 mmol/L) Iron (Fe) M 50–160 µg/L ›PolycythemiaVera,hemolytic anemias,hepatic necrosis,BCPs 4 mL + red-marble or gold F 40–150 µg/L flPernicious anemia,neoplasia,chronic infections,hepatic disease,rheumatoid arthritis,vegetarian diet Osmolality (a) 280–300 mOsmol/L ›Dehydration,excessADH,DM,DI,hypercalcemia,cerebral lesions,head injury 4 mL + red-marble or gold Calculated osmolality (b295–315 mOsmol/L flFluid overload,deficientADH,hypermagnesmia,hyponatremia,SIADH Osmolal gap if b-a>10 Best indicator of cellular hydration:2(Na) + BUN/5 + Glucose/20 = 275–295 or 2¥ sodium level (or 2¥ Na level) CARBO.TESTS: Glucose 70–120 mg/dL ›Diabetes,hyperglycemia,pancreatitis,Cushing’s,prolonged corticosteroid use,stress,burns,AM4 mL + red-marble,gold or grey (8–14 hr fasting) (70–110/80–120) flToo much insulin/oral antihyperglycemics,too little food,alcoholics,hepatic disease 5 mL gray-top tested with 3.9–6.5 mmol/L Note: < 30 mg/dLcan lead to permanent brain damage postprandial Lactic acid & pyruvic acLactic:0.5–2.2 mEq/L or›Myocardial infarction,pulmonary embolism,congestive heart failure,shock,hemorrhage,septice4 mL + gray on ice Venous (fast usually required) 4.5–19.8 mg/dL 4 mL + gray,lavender or green (fast usually required) Pyruvic:0.5–1.5 mg/dL post-strenuous exercise (Collection: PT should rest 1 hr before test; to prevent higher levels,tell PT not to clench fist) heparinized on ice Memory tip: WBC > Hgb 100 mg/dL = serious flLiver disease/damage/failure (hepatitis,drugs,poisoning),SIADH,malnutrition/impaired absorption (celiac disease), impairment of renal function) overhydration,anabolic steroid use,pregnancy (physiologic hydremia) C reati
More Less

Related notes for BI 361

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.