BIO 202 Lecture Notes - Lecture 29: Tata Box, Peptide, Ribosomal Rna

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Central dogma: the flow of information in cells: dna codes for rna and rna codes for proteins. Orga(cid:374)is(cid:373)"s genotype is determined by the sequence of bases in its dna. Orga(cid:374)is(cid:373)"s phenotype is a product of the proteins it produces. The flow of information from gene to protein is based on a triplet code: a series of non- overlapping, three nucleotide words [aka. Uaa, uag, uga are the stop codons [reached the end of the mrna] Ge(cid:374)eti(cid:272) (cid:272)ode (cid:449)as sol(cid:448)ed i(cid:374) the early (cid:1005)9(cid:1010)(cid:1004)"s (cid:271)y artifi(cid:272)ially sy(cid:374)thesizi(cid:374)g a(cid:374) (cid:373)rna a(cid:374)d tra(cid:374)slati(cid:374)g it in a cell-free system. Codons can be redundant in that there are multiple codons that code for an amino acid: ex: uua, uug, cuu, cuc, cua, cug all code for the amino acid leucine. Codons can also be unambiguous because any one codon always specifies the same one amino acid. The genetic code is nearly universal because there are some odd exceptions.

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