BIO 203 Lecture Notes - Lecture 2: Radioteletype, Metabolic Waste, Vasodilation

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Lecture"2:"body"temperature" a. ! the"s$ b. ! want%to%understand%how%organisms%use%basic%laws%of%physics%and%chemistry%to%meet%their%biological% c. ! needs%and%solve%basic%physiological%problems%% two$ i. ! body%temp%&%temp%regulation% ii. ! water&and&ion&balance&& All#of#the#energy#utilization#produces#heat# a. ! b/c,$ some$ heat$ b. ! known%as%endogenous%heat:%heat%produced%by% the%organism% c. ! Co2,,$ of30284 b. ! nitrogenous*wastes*are:* i. ! salvages"for"amino"acid"synthesis" ii. ! excreted"(high"levels"of"ammonia" are"lethal)" iii. ! in#some#animals,#converted#to#less# toxic#forms#of#nitrogen#(storage)## 1. ! i. e. $ c. ! how$ depends"re$ in$ d. ! should"animals"excrete"ammonia"or" convert"it"into"less"toxic"forms"of"nitrogen?"" i. ! trade&off:&when%excreting,% ammonia%must%be%diluted so%a%lot% of%water%is%lost%or%convert%it%into%a% less%toxic%form,%but%that%takes%up%a% lot%of%energy. "" e. ! excreting)as)ammonia)(do)nothing):)ammonotelic! i. ! primarily(excreted(by(urine,(must(product(large(volumes(of(urine(( ii. ! aquatic"animals"(fish)" f. ! excreting)as)urea)(conversion):)ureotelic! i. ! excreted"in"the"urine,"but"do"not"need"to"generate"a"large"volume"of"urine"to"eliminate"" ii. ! animals"can"also"store"urea"in"their"tissues"b/c"it"s"not"toxic"" iii. ! mammals%(including%marine%mammals/whales)% g. ! excreted"as"uric"acid"(conversion):"uricotelic! i. ! eliminates)nitrogenous)waste)w/)little0no)water)loss) ii. ! Flow"of"heat"equation" flow%of%heat% ease30284 driving"force"" rate%at%which%heat%is%moving%between%the% two%objects%(net!heat!movement)! other&facts&that&influence&heat&flow&!! difference(in(temp(between(the(two(objects( Area! (a)! how$ contact?"!!sa#! t n e m e v o m f o e s a e more%opportunity% for! further"distance"! harder&to&transfer& Conductivity! (k)! ii. ! tissue&&&water&have&similar&thermal&conductivity&b/c&all&life&is&aquatic&& iii. ! air30284 iv. ! heat%transfer%example:%% 3. ! vasoconstriction:" smooth"muscle"makes" vessels"constrict"" b. ! convection:"special"case"of"conduction," when"one,"both,"or"all"of"the"objects" involved"can"move"" i. ! occurs&when&environmental& medium&(air&or&water)&moves&over&the&body&surface&& ii. ! i. e. !air!becomes!warm!!!warm!air!rises!!!air!has!convection! iii. ! transfer(equation(is(essentially(the(same(( iv. ! two$ 1. ! free:"environmental"medium"not"mechanically"moved" a. ! i. e. $ b. ! boundary)layers:)temp)around)the)organism)that"s)pretty)close)to)its)own)) c. ! wearing(a(jacket(on(a(cold(day(( 2. ! forced"convection:"environmental"medium"physically"moved"" a. ! disrupts(boundary(layers( b. ! breeze%on%a%summer%day%% c. ! evaporation:"transformation"of"water"from"liquid"to"vapor" i. ! energy&for&this&to&happen&comes&from&the&surface&the&water&is&sitting&on& ii. ! has30284 iii. ! evaporative)cooling:)when)water)moves)from)liquid)phase)to)vapor)phase,)it)absorbs)energy) from%the%body%surface%!!cooling! 2. ! important)mechanism)for)the)organism)to)cool)down)itself)) i. e. ,,$ d. ! radiation:"heat"transfer"w/o"contact" i. ! anything(that(has(heat(can(send(out(electromagnetic(radiation(( ii. ! infrared(electromagnetic(radiation:(how(night(vision/infrared(goggles(work( (picks(up(energy( being(emitted(in(the(form(of(infrared(radiation(of(every(object(( e. !

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