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Anthro Notes

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Department
Anthropology
Course
ANT 121
Professor
Shwarz
Semester
Spring

Description
Anthropology Notes 20/01/2014 19:24:00 Subfields Archeology Physical or biological Linguistic Cultural Core elements of cultural anthropology The concept of culture Holism VS. Comparatives (ethnology) Notion of the “ethnographic present” Appreciation for cultural diversity Holism – the BIG picture Ethnography  to describe a society and include everything Compartivism – the attempt at comparing similarities and differences in difference groups/societies “Anthropology helps make the strange, familiar and the familiar, strange!” Cultural Diversity – celebrate diversity to build tolerance Not a big difference between anthropology and sociology Scientific racism – on group clumps another group based on physiological characteristics Link clump with another characteristic attributes Intelligence, height, skills Social reality – real world consequences Mesigination – fear that black men will take white women - Not to be confused with misogynistic Enculturation – how one learns culture, the passing on of cultural knowledge. Absolute Cultural Relativism – the belief that any society should only be understood by the values and beliefs of that culture, not by another culture. Critical Cultural Relativism – Internal struggles considered in a society over values and practices Ethnocentrism – judging another society by your own societies morals and values No culture is static. They are always changing! Globalization – growth to a global/worldwide scale Localization – conform to the culture that is there; global trends are transformed to work /conform with local trends Micro culture – Distinctive culture of a small group of people Macro culture – Beliefs and behaviors of the more dominant culture Class – based on economic status, demonstrated by materialistic object Ascribed status – given to you by others (class) Acquired status – earned Ethnicity – self-chosen, self-identification, adopt culture of certain heritage Race – category constructed by one group about another Gender – not biological like sex, but self-identified; the culturally constructed roles for me or women or others and can be subject to change Emic versus Etic perspectives  fieldwork Fieldwork Gaining entrée Culture shock Establishing rapport – develop good relationship with the people there Depends on who you are Understanding the culture Techniques Participation journal Field journal Interviewing Triangulation Navajo input on and response to my analysis Outcome Multiple choices Reflexive Collaborative th TEST OCTOBER 4 !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! Natural Language VS. Pidgin  DIALECT Language – associated with sounds, precise, paralanguages, over 6,000 Natural language – childbirth  death Pidgin Languages – develop in intermediate context, small vocab list (15-60 words) Dialect – mutually intelligible 16 U.S. dialects (Brahmin) Languages – not intelligible, just relatable What degree does the language itself control the thought patterns of the speakers? Language conditions speaker’s world- view – the way you see/thing about the world Filter that biases perception Linguistic Relativity VS. Linguistic Determinism language and culture are not coterminous! - Phoneme – smallest sound to distinguish language Morpheme – smallest meaningful linguistic element - ex: ed Lexeme, agglutinative, lexicon, grammar Content is contextual! “Man is by nature a political animal” - Aristotle 350 BC “The history of society is the history of class struggles” - Karl Marx 1848 “The state is a human community that (successfully) claim the monopoly of the legitimate use of violence within a given territory” - Max Weber 1919 Band: A type of social. Political, and economical organization common among foragers who live in a small, unsettled, mobile groups that is characterized by strong kinship ties, loosely defined leadership roles, and a dependence on reciprocity • Kinship: a network of relatives based on affinity, marriage, birth, and common interest • Reciprocity: the exchange of goods or services between two or more people without the use of money Tribe: a type of social, political, and economic organization whereby different settled or nomadic communities are united through Centralized organization  Chiefdom or kingdom: a type of social, political, and economic organization characterized by mounting social integration (which is often kinship based) centralized political leadership, and market exchange • Hawaii, Missouri, Zulu, New Guinea, Herechoi State: a type of social, political, and economic organization characterized by large-scaled social integration (which may or may not be kinship based) centralized hierarchical and bureaucratized political systems; and market exchange ------ all taken from Lassiter World Systems • Philosophical underpinnings o Conceptualizations of nature o Sustainability • Modes of Production – Means of Subsistence (SURVIVAL) o Foraging o Horticulture  Yams, corn, various types of beans  Constant crops – not highly sustainable, run out of land o Pastorialism  Works hand in hand with horticulture  Milk, blood, or meat for 50% or more of diet  Transportation  Sheep, goats, horses, cows…sometimes yaks, reindeer, llamas, goats  Forge trade links with societies! o Agriculture  Markets develop  Surplus o Industrialism • Stereotypes o “Man the Hunter V. “Woman the gatherer” o Nasty, brutish, and short” V. “Original Affluent Society” & “Healthy” o “A Gift from the Gods” V. “The Worst Mistake in Human History” = agriculture revolution • What constitutes the good life? 1 man hour of hunting produces 800 cals 1 man hour of gathering produces 2000 cals • depend on what the woman gathers • Richard Lee Studies • Exception – Inuit • Only 20-25% is meat and 85% comes from what women bring in • 100 species of plants and 50 species of animals • 13-15 hours a week (gathering) and 2.5 days a week- Women o social • 4 hours a day, 3 days a week – 8-12 hours a week – Men • 6 calories of fossil fuel to produce, process, and transport 1 calorie of food Industrialism – the production of goods through mass capitalism through business Capitalism – 16 th and 17th Century; increase competition for market increase and labor • As a World Economy o “Peripheral” vs. “Core Society”  specialized in manufacturing and strong government – CORE (manufacturers) – economic
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