Class Notes (1,100,000)
US (490,000)
Syracuse (4,000)
AST (90)
AST 101 (70)
Lecture 23

AST 101 Lecture 23: 12_01 To the Moon


Department
Astronomy
Course Code
AST 101
Professor
Walter Freeman
Lecture
23

This preview shows pages 1-2. to view the full 6 pages of the document.
!""#$"%&'&"()
*$&+,-(&)+.#/+.0"-1+2/#3&%(+-,3$)(&,+40"+5#$/+.-6#/7+
8&.#/&+9:;<+;#",-5+*&%&'=&/+9>+?@+2#0"(+
8&.#/&+9:;<+AB$/),-5+*&%&'=&/+C>+?DE9+2#0"(+
8&.#/&+9:;<+A$&),-5+*&%&'=&/+@F>+G/-,&,+-)+"#/'-1+
8&.#/&+9:;<+AB$/),-5+*&%&'=&/+@9>+HI+2#0"()<+H9+0.+)%#/&+1&))+(B-"+JK@D+
L
M0"-1+2/#3&%()+'-5+=&+($/"&,+0">+
N"+(B&+=#O+N+B-6&+P0(B+'&+4Q(-/(0"G+"&O(+;#",-57+0"+-+=#O+=5+'5+#..0%&+
,##/+
Q&&+'5+&'-01+.#/+B#P+(#+($/"+0"+.0"&H-/(+(52&+2/#3&%()+
L
M0"-1+&O-'>+9DR+"&P+'-(&/0-1<+9DR+./#'+&O-')+@HF+
L
A-S&HB#'&+1-=)+,$&+0"+1-=+"&O(+P&&S+4B-",+(B&'+(#+5#$/+A!7
L
L
QTN*UQ>+B((2)>KKP-1(&/./&&'-"EG0(B$=E0#K-)(@D@K)10,&)K1&%($/&IIE2,.
V!W+XU+YZ+AZ+A[U+Q\]+!W*+[ZX+V!W+XU+YUA+A[U^U_
AB&+*/&-'+#.+M10GB(
:&#21&+B-6&+,/&-'&,+#.+.150"G+.#/+-G&)<+0"+-11+%#$"(/0&)+-",+)0"%&+(B&+
&-/10&)(+,-5)+#.+B0)(#/5
Z.(&"+#$/+,/&-'+#.+.10GB(+P-)+-+)5'=#1+#.+B$=/0)>+`'#/(-1)+)B#$1,+
S"#P+(B&0/+21-%&`
§
AB&+'5(B+#.+N%-/$)+-",+*-&,-1$)+4P-O+P0"G)<+.1&P+(##+%1#)&+(#+(B&+
)$"<+.&11+(#+G/#$",7
§
T&#"-/,#+,-+a0"%0+4N(-10-"+@b9IH@9@c7
U'=#,0&,+(B&+B$'-"0)(+)20/0(+#.+(B&+^&"-0))-"%&>+`]UQ+XU+V!Wd`
§
QS011&,+-(+)%0&"%&<+2B01#)#2B5<+&"G0"&&/0"G+-",+-/(
§
eE+!",+$)&,+(B&'+-11+(#+&"B-"%&+&-%B+#(B&/
§
T0S&+)#+'-"5+#(B&/)<+,/&-'&,+#.+.150"Ge+
§
L
AB&+`^&"-0))-"%&+;-"`+4-",+X#'-"7
AB&+^&"-0))-"%&+-,'0/&,+6&/)-(010(5f+(B&+`^&"-0))-"%&+;-"`+P-)+
)#'&#"&+PB#)&+)S011+P-)"g(+%#".0"&,+(#+#"&+.0&1,
*-+a0"%0+)($,0&,+-"-(#'5+0"+#/,&/+(#+=&+-+=&((&/+2#/(/-0(+2-0"(&/
§
L
Q%0&"%&+-)+-+T0=&/-1+!/(
AB&/&g)+-+/&-)#"+(B0)+%1-))+0)+0"+(B&+`V#11&G&+ #.+!/()+-",+Q%0&"%&)`
h",&/)(-",0"G+(B&+P#/1,+-/#$",+$)+P-)+#"%&+`"-($/-1+2B01#)#2B5`+H
-"#(B&/+=/-"%B+#.+(B&+$"0.0&,+PB#1&+#.+1&-/"0"G
Q#'&+#.+5#$+'-5+G#+#"+(#+=&%#'&+,#%(#/)+H"#(+#.+2B5)0%)+#/+10(&/-($/&+#/+
&"G0"&&/0"G<+=$(+2B01#)#2B5
`Q%0&"%&`+3$)(+'&-")+S"#P1&,G&>+Suos%Cultores%Scientia%Coronat…
N(g)+"#(+`)%0&"%&+-",+(B&+10=&/-1+-/()`+H)%0&"%&+0)+-+10=&/-1+-/(
L
*-+a0"%0+-",+M10GB(
*-+a0"%0+,/&-'&,+#.+M150"G<+-",+P/#(&+-+(/&-(0)&+#"+=0/,)+H-",+'-,&+
,0-G/-')+.#/+.150"G+'-%B0"&)
h".#/($"-(&15<+2&#21&+,#"g(+3$)(+1-%S+P0"G)<+(B&5+1-%S+&"#$GB+2#P&/
[$'-">+iDSG<+bDD+P-(()f+*$%S>+@SG<+@DD?+X-(()7
L
:#P&/+?+P0"G)+j+M10GB(d
:$)B+5#$/)&1.+.#/P-/,<+$)&+P0"G)+(#+2$)B+,#P"P-/,+#"+(B&+-0/+4.1-220"G+
#/+"#(7<+-",+5#$+%-"+.15d
X&11<+"#(+k$0(&+H5#$+B-6&+(#+.0G$/&+#$(+B#P+(#+)(&&/<+PB0%B+N)+(B&+B-/,+
2-/(E+4]#$+2$)B+#"+(B&+-0/e7
N"+@cDF+X01=$/+-",+Z/6011&+X/0GB(+2$(+-"+0"(&/"-1+%#'=$)(0#"+&"G0"&+#"+-+
P0"G&,+'-%B0"&<+2$(+-+2/#2&11&/+#"+(B&+./#"(<+-,,&,+,&60%&)+(#+)(&&/<+-",+
0"6&"(&,+(B&+-0/21-"&E
L
AB&+*/&-'+#.+M10GB(<+0"+(B&+X-1S0"G+X#/1,e
X&+%-"+.15d+U6&"+=&.#/&+(B-(<+2&#21&+P&/&+,/&-'0"G+#.+G#0"G+(#+(B&+'##"+
-",+=&5#",
@Ci9>+a&/"&+P/#(&+-+=##S+0"+PB0%B+8-1(0'#/&-")+)B##(+(B&')&16&)+
(#+(B&+;##"+0"+-+G0-"(+V-""#"
§
a&/"&+,0,+(B&+'-(B+.#/+(B&+)0l&+#.+(B&+G$"+/&k$0/&,+-",+G#(+0(+/0GB(+
§
N(+P#$1,+B-6&+P#/S&,d+
§
EEE+(B&+-%%&1&/-(0#"+P#$1,+B-6&+)k$-)B&,+(B&+2&#21&<+(B#$GBe
§
L
^#%S&()
Q0'21&+Q#1$(0#">+%-//5+G-)+4#/+-"5(B0"G+&1)&7+P0(B+5#$<+-",+2$)B+0(+#$(+(B&+
=-%Sd
AB&+VB0"&)&+B-,+=&&"+$)0"G+/#%S&()+0"+P-/.-/&+-)+&-/15+-)+@ICD<+$)0"G+(B&+
G$"2#P,&/+-1)#+,&6&1#2&,+0"+VB0"-
AB&+\#/&-")+-",+;#"G#10-")+k$0%S15+-,#2(&,+(B&+"&P+P&-2#"<+-",+(B&+
(&%B"#1#G5+)2/&-,+-/#$",+U$/-)0-+0"+(B&+"&O(+.&P+%&"($/0&)
AB&+P#/S)+G/&-(+0"+)2-%&>+`N+2$)B+=-%SP-/,)+#"+(B&+G-)+Ng6&+=/#$GB(+P0(B+
'&<+0(+2$)B&)+.#/P-/,)+#"+'&`
L
A)0#1S#6)S5+>+;-S0"G+^#%S&()+:/&%0)&+
AB&+^$))0-"+)%0&"(0)(+\#")(-"(0"+A)0#1S#6)S5+4@C9JH@cF97+P-)+(B&+.0/)(+(#+
)($,5+(B&+2B5)0%)+#.+/#%S&(/5+0"+,&2(BE+4[&+-1)#+)($,0&,+'$)0%+-",+(B&+
2/#=1&'+#.+2#6&/(5E7+
[&+,0)%#6&/&,+(B&+/#%S&(+&k$-(0#"<+PB0%B+,&)%/0=&)+(B&+2&/.#/'-"%&+#.+-+
2&/.&%(<+0,&-1+/#%S&(>+
ma+j+6&+1"+M+
§
[&/&>+
ma+0)+(B&+)2&&,+(B-(+(B&+/#%S&(+P011+=&+(/-6&10"G+-.(&/+0(+=$/")+0()+.$&1+
A#+&)%-2&+U-/(Bn)+G/-60(5>+-=#$(+@@+S01#'&(&/)K)&%#",+
4%-1%$1-(&,+=5+A)0#1S#6)S57
o
§
6&+0)+(B&+&OB-$)(+6&1#%0(5+#.+(B&+/#%S&(+4B#P+.-)(+(B&+G-)+%#'&)+#$(+
(B&+=-%S7
§
M+0)+B#P+'-"5+(0'&)+=0GG&/+(B&+/#%S&(+0)+(B-"+0()+2-51#-,+
[&/&+p2-51#-,q+'&-")+&6&/5+2-/(+#.+(B&+/#%S&(+(B-(+0)"n(+.$&1o
§
A)0#1S#6)S5+/&-10l&,+(B-(+/#%S&()+%#$1,+(-S&+$)+(#+)2-%&<+-",+P/#(&+-=#$(+
(B0)+0"+@cDF>+pUO21#/-(0#"+#.+V#)'0%+Q2-%&+=5+;&-")+#.+^#%S&(+*&60%&)q+
8$(+PB-(+S0",+#.+.$&1+0)+"&&,&,_+T&(n)+'-S&+-+(-=1&+B&/&E+Q$22#)&+P&+
P-"(+(#+10.(+-+(#"+(#+#/=0(f+B#P+'$%B+.$&1+,#+P&+"&&,_
AB&+2/#=1&'+P0(B+/#%S&()>+5#$+B-6&+(#+%-//5+5#$/+.$&1+P0(B+5#$E+AB&+1&))+
&..0%0&"(+5#$/+.$&1+0)<+(B&+'#/&+.$&1+5#$+"&&,<+)#+5#$+"&&,+'#/&+.$&1+(#+
%-//5+(B-(+.$&1EEE+
!",<+0.+5#$+P-"(+(#+%#'&+=-%S+./#'+PB&/&6&/+5#$+P&"(<+5#$+"&&,+&6&"+
'#/&+.$&1e
L
^#=&/(+Y#,,-/,>+;-S0"G+^#%S&()
^#=&/(+Y#,,-/,+4!'&/0%-"+@CCIH@cb97+B-,+-+1#"GH/$""0"G+0"(&/&)(+0"+
/#%S&(/5+-)+-+'&-")+(#+G&(+(#+)2-%&E+[&>
A##S+A)0#1S#6)S5g)+0,&-)+-",+2$(+(B&'+0"(#+2/-%(0%&
§
^&-10l&,+(B-(+-+)2&%0-115H)B-2&,+/#%S&(+"#ll1&+%#$1,+G/&-(15+0"%/&-)&+
&OB-$)(+)2&&,)+4/&'&'=&/+B#P+'$%B+(B0)+'-((&/)d7+
§
!%B0&6&,+&OB-$)(+)2&&,)+#.+CiDD+S'KB/
§
AB&+W]A+,0,"g(+=&10&6&+ (B0)
L
^#%S&()+-)+-+X&-2#"
[$'-"0(5g)+,/&-'+#.+.10GB(+(#+(B&+;##"+P-)+0"(&//$2(&,+=5+(B&+Q&%#",+
X#/1,+X-/<+P0(B+/#%S&()+2/&))&,+0"(#+)&/60%&+(#+S011+&-%B+#(B&/
!11+)0,&)+0"+(B&+P-/+$)&,+/#%S&(+P&-2#")<+=$(+(B&+'#)(+.-'#$)+-",+1-/G&)(+
P-)+(B&+Y&/'-"+aHI>+B((2)>KKPPPE5#$($=&E%#'KP-(%B_6jcbACaOZZ6,N
AB&)&+/#%S&()<+,&)0G"&,+=5+-+(&-'+#.+Y&/'-"+&"G0"&&/)+1&,+=5+X&/B"&/+
6#"+8/-$"<+P&/&+.0/&,+-%/#))+(B&+U"G10)B+VB-""&1+-(+T#",#"E+AB&5+,0,"n(+
,#+'$%B+,-'-G&<+=$(+P&/&+(&//0.50"GE+
!.(&/+XXNN<+(B&+V#1,+X-/+P-)+#">+(B&+!'&/0%-")+-",+(B&+Q#60&()+(B#$GB(+
0(+P-)+3$)(+-+'-((&/+#.+(0'&+$"(01+(B&5+P&/&+-(+P-/E+
8#(B+)0,&)+/$)B&,+(#+%-2($/&+6#"+8/-$"+-",+B0)+(&-'f+(B&+!'&/0%-")+G#(+
(B&/&+.0/)(<+-",+=/#$GB(+(B&'+=-%S+(#+!1-=-'-E+
Z"&+#.+(B&'+106&,+-%/#))+(B&+)(/&&(+./#'+'&+PB&"+X-1(&/+P-)+-+%B01,E+
!"#(B&/+#"&+P-)+B0)+B0GB+)%B##1+U"G10)B+(&-%B&/E
L
AB&+V#1,+X-/
8#(B+!'&/0%-")+-",+Q#60&()+106&,+0"+-+%#")(-"(+.&-/+#.+"$%1&-/+P-/
!+/#%S&(+(B-(+%#$1,+,&106&/+-+"$%1&-/+P-/B&-,+P-)+(B&+$1(0'-(&+P&-2#">+
-"+NV8;
Q#+/#%S&(+(&%B"#1#G5+P-)+S&5+(#+`P0""0"G`+(B&+V#1,+X-/
8#(B+)0,&)+P-"(&,+(#+,&'#")(/-(&+(B&0/+)$2&/0#/0(5E+AB&+Q#60&()<+
B#P&6&/<+=&-(+$)>+)B#P0"G+(B&0/+'-)(&/5+#.+(B&+(&%B"#1#G5+(B-(+%#$1,+=&+
$)&,+(#+S011+(&")+#.+'0110#")+#.+!'&/0%-")+0"+-+./-%(0#"+#.+-"+B#$/E
L
Q2$("0S+-",+a#)(#S
AB0)+(&//0.0&,+(B&+!'&/0%-")>+0.+5#$+%-"+2$(+-+)-(&110(&+ 0"+Z/=0(<+5#$+%-"+G&(+
-+(B&/'#"$%1&-/+=#'=+-"5PB&/&+#"+(B&+&-/(Bg)+)$/.-%&E+X&+%/&-(&,+
W!Q!+0"+/&)2#")&+-",+,&)2&/-(&15+(/0&,+(#+%-(%B+$2<+P0(B+-+%#"%&"(/-(&,+
&..#/(+(#+/&%/$0(+&"G0"&&/)+-",+)%0&"(0)()+(#+P#/S+#"+(B&+2/#3&%(
AB&"<+0"+@ci@<+Q#60&()+1-$"%B&,+-+B$'-"+0"(#+)2-%&<+]$/0+Y-G-/0"<+PB#+
#/=0(&,+(B&+U-/(B+-",+/&($/"&,+)-.&15E
L
AB&+!'&/0%-"+^&)2#")&
N"+@ciI+(B&+!'&/0%-"+2/&)0,&"(+r#B"+ME+\&""&,5+%-11&,+.#/+-+
%#"%&"(/-(&,<+,&6#(&,+&..#/(+(#+(/-6&1+(#+(B&+;##"E
B((2)>KKPPPE5#$($=&E%#'KP-(%B_6j(B9!istIC2U 4&O%&/2()+u.$11+(&O(+-(+
B((2>KK=0(E15KIG8cT9k7
AB&+&..#/(+(##S+)&6&"+5&-/)E+8&.#/&+&'=-/S0"G+#"+(B&+'0))0#"+(#+=$01,+(B&+
;##"+/#%S&(<+P&+$",&/(##S+(P#+#(B&/+.10GB(+2/#G/-')>
:/#3&%(+;&/%$/5>+)'-11+%/-.(+(B-(+%-//0&,+#"&+2&/)#"<+(B&+.0/)(+
!'&/0%-"+0"+Q2-%&>+!1-"+QB&2-/,
§
:/#3&%(+Y&'0"0>+AP#H2&/)#"+)2-%&%/-.(+0"+1#PHU-/(B+#/=0(
T0.&+Q$22#/(+A&%B"#1#G5o
Z/=0(-1+'-"&$6&/0"G+-",+,#%S0"Go
UO(/-6&B0%$1-/+-%(060(5+4`)2-%&P-1S)`7o
§
L
AB&+!2#11#+:/#G/-'
W!Q!+)&(+#$(+(#+=$01,+-+1-/G&+^#%S&(<+(B&+Q-($/"+a<+(B-(+%#$1,+/&-%B+(B&+
;##"E
AB/&&+Q(-G&)
§
*&)0G"&,+(#+8##)(+(P#+)2-%&%/-.(+(#+(B&+;##"
§
e+-+%#''-",+'#,$1&<+,&)0G"&,+(#+)(-5+0"+1$"-/+#/=0(
§
e+-",+-+1$"-/+'#,$1&<+,&)0G"&,+(#+1-",+#"+(B&+;##"+0()&1.
§
L
AB&+M0/)(+M&P+M10GB()
!2#11#+N+4@ciJ7>+%/&P+%B-'=&/+2/&))$/0l&,+P0(B+2$/&+ZO5G&"
V-$GB(+M0/&f+-11+(B/&&+-)(/#"-$()+,0&,+HVB-..&&<+XB0(&+-",+Y/0))#'
Q&6&"+.10GB()+0"+@ciJH@cic+(&)(&,+6-/0#$)+20&%&)+#.+(B&+&k$02'&"(
!2#11#+C+-",+@D+)&"(+-)(/#"-$()+(#+Z/=0(+(B&+;##"+0()&1.<+=$(+(B&5+,0,"g(+
1-",
;-))06&+&"G0"&&/0"G+%B-11&"G&)+/&k$0/&,+(B&+0"6&"(0#"+#.+(#(-115+"&P+
.0&1,)
`Q#.(P-/&+&"G0"&&/0"G`
L
!2#11#+@@>+(B&+;##"+-(+T-)(
M0"-115<+0(+P-)+(0'&+(#+G#+.#/+(B&+2/0l&E+B((2)>KK5#$($E=&KhUOAWFvhZN]
B((2)>KK5#$($E=&KUciU:BkAH,)_(j@@Jc
Z"+ID+r$15<+@cic<+B$'-"0(5+P-1S&,+#"+-"#(B&/+P#/1,+.#/+(B&+.0/)(+(0'&E+
W&01+!/')(/#"G+-",+8$ll+!1,/0"+,&)%&",&,+(#+(B&+1$"-/+)$/.-%&+
§
;0%B-&1+V#110")+)(-5&,+0"+1$"-/+#/=0(+0"+(B&+V#''-",+;#,$1&+
§
§AB&5+)(-5&,+#"+(B&+;##"+.#/+"&-/15+-+,-5<+P-1S0"G+#"+(B&+)$/.-%&+
.#/+(P#+-",+-+B-1.+B#$/)+
§AB&5+=/#$GB(+=-%S+-/#$",+.0.(5+2#$",)+#.+'##"H/#%S)+
§Y-11&/5+#.+0'-G&)>+B((2>KKPPPEBkE"-)-EG#6K-1)3K-@@K-@@
v&6-v(B$'=)EB('1
L
To#the#Moon
AB$/),-5<+ *&%&'=&/+ @<+ID@i
I>D@+:;

Only pages 1-2 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

!""#$"%&'&"()
*$&+,-(&)+.#/+.0"-1+2/#3&%(+-,3$)(&,+40"+5#$/+.-6#/7+
8&.#/&+9:;<+;#",-5+*&%&'=&/+9>+?@+2#0"(+
8&.#/&+9:;<+AB$/),-5+*&%&'=&/+C>+?DE9+2#0"(+
8&.#/&+9:;<+A$&),-5+*&%&'=&/+@F>+G/-,&,+-)+"#/'-1+
8&.#/&+9:;<+AB$/),-5+*&%&'=&/+@9>+HI+2#0"()<+H9+0.+)%#/&+1&))+(B-"+JK@D+
L
M0"-1+2/#3&%()+'-5+=&+($/"&,+0">+
N"+'5+'-01=#O+0"+(B&+'-0"+#..0%&
N"+(B&+=#O+N+B-6&+P0(B+'&+4Q(-/(0"G+"&O(+;#",-57+0"+-+=#O+=5+'5+#..0%&+
,##/+
Q&&+'5+&'-01+.#/+B#P+(#+($/"+0"+.0"&H-/(+(52&+2/#3&%()+
L
M0"-1+&O-'>+9DR+"&P+'-(&/0-1<+9DR+./#'+&O-')+@HF+L
A-S&HB#'&+1-=)+,$&+0"+1-=+"&O(+P&&S+4B-",+(B&'+(#+5#$/+A!7L
LQTN*UQ>+B((2)>KKP-1(&/./&&'-"EG0(B$=E0#K-)(@D@K)10,&)K1&%($/&IIE2,.
V!W+XU+YZ+AZ+A[U+Q\]+!W*+[ZX+V!W+XU+YUA+A[U^U_
AB&+*/&-'+#.+M10GB(
:&#21&+B-6&+,/&-'&,+#.+.150"G+.#/+-G&)<+0"+-11+%#$"(/0&)+-",+)0"%&+(B&+
&-/10&)(+,-5)+#.+B0)(#/5
Z.(&"+#$/+,/&-'+#.+.10GB(+P-)+-+)5'=#1+#.+B$=/0)>+`'#/(-1)+)B#$1,+
S"#P+(B&0/+21-%&`
§
AB&+'5(B+#.+N%-/$)+-",+*-&,-1$)+4P-O+P0"G)<+.1&P+(##+%1#)&+(#+(B&+
)$"<+.&11+(#+G/#$",7
§
T&#"-/,#+,-+a0"%0+4N(-10-"+@b9IH@9@c7
U'=#,0&,+(B&+B$'-"0)(+)20/0(+#.+(B&+^&"-0))-"%&>+`]UQ+XU+V!Wd`
§
QS011&,+-(+)%0&"%&<+2B01#)#2B5<+&"G0"&&/0"G+-",+-/(
§
eE+!",+$)&,+(B&'+-11+(#+&"B-"%&+&-%B+#(B&/
§
T0S&+)#+'-"5+#(B&/)<+,/&-'&,+#.+.150"Ge+
§
L
AB&+`^&"-0))-"%&+;-"`+4-",+X#'-"7
AB&+^&"-0))-"%&+-,'0/&,+6&/)-(010(5f+(B&+`^&"-0))-"%&+;-"`+P-)+
)#'&#"&+PB#)&+)S011+P-)"g(+%#".0"&,+(#+#"&+.0&1,
*-+a0"%0+)($,0&,+-"-(#'5+0"+#/,&/+(#+=&+-+=&((&/+2#/(/-0(+2-0"(&/
§
L
Q%0&"%&+-)+-+T0=&/-1+!/(
AB&/&g)+-+/&-)#"+(B0)+%1-))+0)+0"+(B&+`V#11&G&+ #.+!/()+-",+Q%0&"%&)`
h",&/)(-",0"G+(B&+P#/1,+-/#$",+$)+P-)+#"%&+`"-($/-1+2B01#)#2B5`+H
-"#(B&/+=/-"%B+#.+(B&+$"0.0&,+PB#1&+#.+1&-/"0"G
Q#'&+#.+5#$+'-5+G#+#"+(#+=&%#'&+,#%(#/)+H"#(+#.+2B5)0%)+#/+10(&/-($/&+#/+
&"G0"&&/0"G<+=$(+2B01#)#2B5
`Q%0&"%&`+3$)(+'&-")+S"#P1&,G&>+Suos%Cultores%Scientia%Coronat…
N(g)+"#(+`)%0&"%&+-",+(B&+10=&/-1+-/()`+H)%0&"%&+0)+-+10=&/-1+-/(
L
*-+a0"%0+-",+M10GB(
*-+a0"%0+,/&-'&,+#.+M150"G<+-",+P/#(&+-+(/&-(0)&+#"+=0/,)+H-",+'-,&+
,0-G/-')+.#/+.150"G+'-%B0"&)
h".#/($"-(&15<+2&#21&+,#"g(+3$)(+1-%S+P0"G)<+(B&5+1-%S+&"#$GB+2#P&/
[$'-">+iDSG<+bDD+P-(()f+*$%S>+@SG<+@DD?+X-(()7
L
:#P&/+?+P0"G)+j+M10GB(d
:$)B+5#$/)&1.+.#/P-/,<+$)&+P0"G)+(#+2$)B+,#P"P-/,+#"+(B&+-0/+4.1-220"G+
#/+"#(7<+-",+5#$+%-"+.15d
X&11<+"#(+k$0(&+H5#$+B-6&+(#+.0G$/&+#$(+B#P+(#+)(&&/<+PB0%B+N)+(B&+B-/,+
2-/(E+4]#$+2$)B+#"+(B&+-0/e7
N"+@cDF+X01=$/+-",+Z/6011&+X/0GB(+2$(+-"+0"(&/"-1+%#'=$)(0#"+&"G0"&+#"+-+
P0"G&,+'-%B0"&<+2$(+-+2/#2&11&/+#"+(B&+./#"(<+-,,&,+,&60%&)+(#+)(&&/<+-",+
0"6&"(&,+(B&+-0/21-"&E
L
AB&+*/&-'+#.+M10GB(<+0"+(B&+X-1S0"G+X#/1,e
X&+%-"+.15d+U6&"+=&.#/&+(B-(<+2&#21&+P&/&+,/&-'0"G+#.+G#0"G+(#+(B&+'##"+
-",+=&5#",
@Ci9>+a&/"&+P/#(&+-+=##S+0"+PB0%B+8-1(0'#/&-")+)B##(+(B&')&16&)+
(#+(B&+;##"+0"+-+G0-"(+V-""#"
§
a&/"&+,0,+(B&+'-(B+.#/+(B&+)0l&+#.+(B&+G$"+/&k$0/&,+-",+G#(+0(+/0GB(+
§
N(+P#$1,+B-6&+P#/S&,d+
§
EEE+(B&+-%%&1&/-(0#"+P#$1,+B-6&+)k$-)B&,+(B&+2&#21&<+(B#$GBe
§
L
^#%S&()
Q0'21&+Q#1$(0#">+%-//5+G-)+4#/+-"5(B0"G+&1)&7+P0(B+5#$<+-",+2$)B+0(+#$(+(B&+
=-%Sd
AB&+VB0"&)&+B-,+=&&"+$)0"G+/#%S&()+0"+P-/.-/&+-)+&-/15+-)+@ICD<+$)0"G+(B&+
G$"2#P,&/+-1)#+,&6&1#2&,+0"+VB0"-
AB&+\#/&-")+-",+;#"G#10-")+k$0%S15+-,#2(&,+(B&+"&P+P&-2#"<+-",+(B&+
(&%B"#1#G5+)2/&-,+-/#$",+U$/-)0-+0"+(B&+"&O(+.&P+%&"($/0&)
AB&+P#/S)+G/&-(+0"+)2-%&>+`N+2$)B+=-%SP-/,)+#"+(B&+G-)+Ng6&+=/#$GB(+P0(B+
'&<+0(+2$)B&)+.#/P-/,)+#"+'&`
L
A)0#1S#6)S5+>+;-S0"G+^#%S&()+:/&%0)&+
AB&+^$))0-"+)%0&"(0)(+\#")(-"(0"+A)0#1S#6)S5+4@C9JH@cF97+P-)+(B&+.0/)(+(#+
)($,5+(B&+2B5)0%)+#.+/#%S&(/5+0"+,&2(BE+4[&+-1)#+)($,0&,+'$)0%+-",+(B&+
2/#=1&'+#.+2#6&/(5E7+
[&+,0)%#6&/&,+(B&+/#%S&(+&k$-(0#"<+PB0%B+,&)%/0=&)+(B&+2&/.#/'-"%&+#.+-+
2&/.&%(<+0,&-1+/#%S&(>+
ma+j+6&+1"+M+
§
[&/&>+
ma+0)+(B&+)2&&,+(B-(+(B&+/#%S&(+P011+=&+(/-6&10"G+-.(&/+0(+=$/")+0()+.$&1+
A#+&)%-2&+U-/(Bn)+G/-60(5>+-=#$(+@@+S01#'&(&/)K)&%#",+
4%-1%$1-(&,+=5+A)0#1S#6)S57
o
§
6&+0)+(B&+&OB-$)(+6&1#%0(5+#.+(B&+/#%S&(+4B#P+.-)(+(B&+G-)+%#'&)+#$(+
(B&+=-%S7
§
M+0)+B#P+'-"5+(0'&)+=0GG&/+(B&+/#%S&(+0)+(B-"+0()+2-51#-,+
[&/&+p2-51#-,q+'&-")+&6&/5+2-/(+#.+(B&+/#%S&(+(B-(+0)"n(+.$&1o
§
A)0#1S#6)S5+/&-10l&,+(B-(+/#%S&()+%#$1,+(-S&+$)+(#+)2-%&<+-",+P/#(&+-=#$(+
(B0)+0"+@cDF>+pUO21#/-(0#"+#.+V#)'0%+Q2-%&+=5+;&-")+#.+^#%S&(+*&60%&)q+
8$(+PB-(+S0",+#.+.$&1+0)+"&&,&,_+T&(n)+'-S&+-+(-=1&+B&/&E+Q$22#)&+P&+
P-"(+(#+10.(+-+(#"+(#+#/=0(f+B#P+'$%B+.$&1+,#+P&+"&&,_
AB&+2/#=1&'+P0(B+/#%S&()>+5#$+B-6&+(#+%-//5+5#$/+.$&1+P0(B+5#$E+AB&+1&))+
&..0%0&"(+5#$/+.$&1+0)<+(B&+'#/&+.$&1+5#$+"&&,<+)#+5#$+"&&,+'#/&+.$&1+(#+
%-//5+(B-(+.$&1EEE+
!",<+0.+5#$+P-"(+(#+%#'&+=-%S+./#'+PB&/&6&/+5#$+P&"(<+5#$+"&&,+&6&"+
'#/&+.$&1e
L
^#=&/(+Y#,,-/,>+;-S0"G+^#%S&()
^#=&/(+Y#,,-/,+4!'&/0%-"+@CCIH@cb97+B-,+-+1#"GH/$""0"G+0"(&/&)(+0"+
/#%S&(/5+-)+-+'&-")+(#+G&(+(#+)2-%&E+[&>
A##S+A)0#1S#6)S5g)+0,&-)+-",+2$(+(B&'+0"(#+2/-%(0%&
§
^&-10l&,+(B-(+-+)2&%0-115H)B-2&,+/#%S&(+"#ll1&+%#$1,+G/&-(15+0"%/&-)&+
&OB-$)(+)2&&,)+4/&'&'=&/+B#P+'$%B+(B0)+'-((&/)d7+
§
!%B0&6&,+&OB-$)(+)2&&,)+#.+CiDD+S'KB/
§
AB&+W]A+,0,"g(+=&10&6&+ (B0)
L
^#%S&()+-)+-+X&-2#"
[$'-"0(5g)+,/&-'+#.+.10GB(+(#+(B&+;##"+P-)+0"(&//$2(&,+=5+(B&+Q&%#",+
X#/1,+X-/<+P0(B+/#%S&()+2/&))&,+0"(#+)&/60%&+(#+S011+&-%B+#(B&/
!11+)0,&)+0"+(B&+P-/+$)&,+/#%S&(+P&-2#")<+=$(+(B&+'#)(+.-'#$)+-",+1-/G&)(+
P-)+(B&+Y&/'-"+aHI>+B((2)>KKPPPE5#$($=&E%#'KP-(%B_6jcbACaOZZ6,N
AB&)&+/#%S&()<+,&)0G"&,+=5+-+(&-'+#.+Y&/'-"+&"G0"&&/)+1&,+=5+X&/B"&/+
6#"+8/-$"<+P&/&+.0/&,+-%/#))+(B&+U"G10)B+VB-""&1+-(+T#",#"E+AB&5+,0,"n(+
,#+'$%B+,-'-G&<+=$(+P&/&+(&//0.50"GE+
!.(&/+XXNN<+(B&+V#1,+X-/+P-)+#">+(B&+!'&/0%-")+-",+(B&+Q#60&()+(B#$GB(+
0(+P-)+3$)(+-+'-((&/+#.+(0'&+$"(01+(B&5+P&/&+-(+P-/E+
8#(B+)0,&)+/$)B&,+(#+%-2($/&+6#"+8/-$"+-",+B0)+(&-'f+(B&+!'&/0%-")+G#(+
(B&/&+.0/)(<+-",+=/#$GB(+(B&'+=-%S+(#+!1-=-'-E+
Z"&+#.+(B&'+106&,+-%/#))+(B&+)(/&&(+./#'+'&+PB&"+X-1(&/+P-)+-+%B01,E+
!"#(B&/+#"&+P-)+B0)+B0GB+)%B##1+U"G10)B+(&-%B&/E
L
AB&+V#1,+X-/
8#(B+!'&/0%-")+-",+Q#60&()+106&,+0"+-+%#")(-"(+.&-/+#.+"$%1&-/+P-/
!+/#%S&(+(B-(+%#$1,+,&106&/+-+"$%1&-/+P-/B&-,+P-)+(B&+$1(0'-(&+P&-2#">+
-"+NV8;
Q#+/#%S&(+(&%B"#1#G5+P-)+S&5+(#+`P0""0"G`+(B&+V#1,+X-/
8#(B+)0,&)+P-"(&,+(#+,&'#")(/-(&+(B&0/+)$2&/0#/0(5E+AB&+Q#60&()<+
B#P&6&/<+=&-(+$)>+)B#P0"G+(B&0/+'-)(&/5+#.+(B&+(&%B"#1#G5+(B-(+%#$1,+=&+
$)&,+(#+S011+(&")+#.+'0110#")+#.+!'&/0%-")+0"+-+./-%(0#"+#.+-"+B#$/E
L
Q2$("0S+-",+a#)(#S
AB0)+(&//0.0&,+(B&+!'&/0%-")>+0.+5#$+%-"+2$(+-+)-(&110(&+ 0"+Z/=0(<+5#$+%-"+G&(+
-+(B&/'#"$%1&-/+=#'=+-"5PB&/&+#"+(B&+&-/(Bg)+)$/.-%&E+X&+%/&-(&,+
W!Q!+0"+/&)2#")&+-",+,&)2&/-(&15+(/0&,+(#+%-(%B+$2<+P0(B+-+%#"%&"(/-(&,+
&..#/(+(#+/&%/$0(+&"G0"&&/)+-",+)%0&"(0)()+(#+P#/S+#"+(B&+2/#3&%(
AB&"<+0"+@ci@<+Q#60&()+1-$"%B&,+-+B$'-"+0"(#+)2-%&<+]$/0+Y-G-/0"<+PB#+
#/=0(&,+(B&+U-/(B+-",+/&($/"&,+)-.&15E
L
AB&+!'&/0%-"+^&)2#")&
N"+@ciI+(B&+!'&/0%-"+2/&)0,&"(+r#B"+ME+\&""&,5+%-11&,+.#/+-+
%#"%&"(/-(&,<+,&6#(&,+&..#/(+(#+(/-6&1+(#+(B&+;##"E
B((2)>KKPPPE5#$($=&E%#'KP-(%B_6j(B9!istIC2U 4&O%&/2()+u.$11+(&O(+-(+
B((2>KK=0(E15KIG8cT9k7
AB&+&..#/(+(##S+)&6&"+5&-/)E+8&.#/&+&'=-/S0"G+#"+(B&+'0))0#"+(#+=$01,+(B&+
;##"+/#%S&(<+P&+$",&/(##S+(P#+#(B&/+.10GB(+2/#G/-')>
:/#3&%(+;&/%$/5>+)'-11+%/-.(+(B-(+%-//0&,+#"&+2&/)#"<+(B&+.0/)(+
!'&/0%-"+0"+Q2-%&>+!1-"+QB&2-/,
§
:/#3&%(+Y&'0"0>+AP#H2&/)#"+)2-%&%/-.(+0"+1#PHU-/(B+#/=0(
T0.&+Q$22#/(+A&%B"#1#G5o
Z/=0(-1+'-"&$6&/0"G+-",+,#%S0"Go
UO(/-6&B0%$1-/+-%(060(5+4`)2-%&P-1S)`7o
§
L
AB&+!2#11#+:/#G/-'
W!Q!+)&(+#$(+(#+=$01,+-+1-/G&+^#%S&(<+(B&+Q-($/"+a<+(B-(+%#$1,+/&-%B+(B&+
;##"E
AB/&&+Q(-G&)
§
*&)0G"&,+(#+8##)(+(P#+)2-%&%/-.(+(#+(B&+;##"
§
e+-+%#''-",+'#,$1&<+,&)0G"&,+(#+)(-5+0"+1$"-/+#/=0(
§
e+-",+-+1$"-/+'#,$1&<+,&)0G"&,+(#+1-",+#"+(B&+;##"+0()&1.
§
L
AB&+M0/)(+M&P+M10GB()
!2#11#+N+4@ciJ7>+%/&P+%B-'=&/+2/&))$/0l&,+P0(B+2$/&+ZO5G&"
V-$GB(+M0/&f+-11+(B/&&+-)(/#"-$()+,0&,+HVB-..&&<+XB0(&+-",+Y/0))#'
Q&6&"+.10GB()+0"+@ciJH@cic+(&)(&,+6-/0#$)+20&%&)+#.+(B&+&k$02'&"(
!2#11#+C+-",+@D+)&"(+-)(/#"-$()+(#+Z/=0(+(B&+;##"+0()&1.<+=$(+(B&5+,0,"g(+
1-",
;-))06&+&"G0"&&/0"G+%B-11&"G&)+/&k$0/&,+(B&+0"6&"(0#"+#.+(#(-115+"&P+
.0&1,)
`Q#.(P-/&+&"G0"&&/0"G`
L
!2#11#+@@>+(B&+;##"+-(+T-)(
M0"-115<+0(+P-)+(0'&+(#+G#+.#/+(B&+2/0l&E+B((2)>KK5#$($E=&KhUOAWFvhZN]
B((2)>KK5#$($E=&KUciU:BkAH,)_(j@@Jc
Z"+ID+r$15<+@cic<+B$'-"0(5+P-1S&,+#"+-"#(B&/+P#/1,+.#/+(B&+.0/)(+(0'&E+
W&01+!/')(/#"G+-",+8$ll+!1,/0"+,&)%&",&,+(#+(B&+1$"-/+)$/.-%&+
§
;0%B-&1+V#110")+)(-5&,+0"+1$"-/+#/=0(+0"+(B&+V#''-",+;#,$1&+
§
§AB&5+)(-5&,+#"+(B&+;##"+.#/+"&-/15+-+,-5<+P-1S0"G+#"+(B&+)$/.-%&+
.#/+(P#+-",+-+B-1.+B#$/)+
§AB&5+=/#$GB(+=-%S+-/#$",+.0.(5+2#$",)+#.+'##"H/#%S)+
§Y-11&/5+#.+0'-G&)>+B((2>KKPPPEBkE"-)-EG#6K-1)3K-@@K-@@
v&6-v(B$'=)EB('1
L
To#the#Moon
AB$/),-5<+ *&%&'=&/+ @<+ID@i I>D@+:;
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version