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BIO 121 - September 9th

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BIO 121
Jason Wiles

Polar Molecules Water is a polar molecule • One end has a partial positive charge and the other has a partial negative charge • Water’s polar nature is responsible for many of it’s key emergent properties • For example, because it’s polar, water is a solvent for ionic or polar solutes • Water will dissolve ionic and polar substances, ionic compounds • EX. water and ammonia Cohesion andAdhesion • Water molecules exhibit cohesion because they form hydrogen bonds with one another • Water molecules exhibit adhesion by hydrogen bonding to substances with ionic or polar regions • Capillary action • Anarrow tube will pull more water up until the weight of the water below will overpower the water that is above, the water molecules are holding on to the object and will carry the water molecules with them • This is really important for trees and plants for moving water through plants Specific Heat Water has a high specific heat • • Hydrogen bonds must break to raise water temperature • Specific heat of water helps • Organisms maintain relatively constant internal temperature • Stabilize the temperature of large bodies of water (oceans), and thus greatly affects climate • EX. Oregon and Washington State Heat of Vaporization • Water has a high heat of vaporization because of it’s polarity • Hydrogen bonds must break for molecules to enter vapor phase • Molecules carry heat, causing evaporative cooling • Sweating, panting Ice • Hydrogen bonds between water molecules make ice less dense than liquid water • Ice floats, the aquatic environment is less extreme Three Phases of Water Gas: Very few hydrogen bonds, molecules far apart Liquid: Hydrogen bonds break a
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