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BIO 121, Oct 14

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BIO 121
Jason Wiles

BIO 121, Class Notes - October 14th Clicker Question Which of the following is completely composed of DNA? Chromosomes, Genes and Chromatin Chromatin within the nucleus is DNAand proteins Chromosomes, DNAwrapped around proteins Gene is a DNAthat tells you how to build a specific protein Organization • Genes • Cell’s informational unites • Made of DNA • Chromatin • DNAand protein • Makes up chromosomes (eukaryotes) • Chromosomes • Allows DNAsorting • Into daughter cells • Typical “x” chromosome photo is when the chromosome is tightly condensed for cell division Key Concept In eukaryotic cells, DNAis wound around specific proteins to form chromatin, which in turn is folded and packaged to make individual chromosomes Clicker Question Which of the following is used for cellular reproduction by prokaryotes? Binary Fission, Mitosis, Meiosis • Meiosis is between eukaryotes for sexual reproduction, prokaryotes do not do sexual reproduction • Mitosis is with eukaryotes with several different chromosomes within their nuclei which have to be separated for the daughter cells to receive all of the chromosomes. Prokaryotes have circular DNAwhich will help during binary fission Divide by binary fission • Asexual Reproduction Single parent • • Offspring have identical hereditary traits • Mitosis • Basis for asexual cellular reproduction in eukaryotes • Binary fission • Basis for prokaryotic asexual reproduction, copy the main DNAfor each daughter cell Eukaryotic Chromosomes • Nucleosome • Histone (protein) bead wrapped in DNA, looking like a beaded necklace • Organized into coiled loops • Held together by nonhistone scaffolding proteins, framework • Eukaryotic DNA • Bead looking necklace • Each bead is nucleosomes • Epigenetic Influence whether or not the genes are accessible to the enzymes • • Where the DNAloops around may or may not depend on what gene you may have • EX. Le
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