Historic Development of Forensic Science
What are the important developments that mark the progression of Forensic Science?
As with any science, developments in Forensic Science can be examined to show the pro-
gression of it by examining historic events. These milestones have also shaped the organiza-
dence. Lastly, the inclusion of evidence into the courtroom should be included in this his-
▪ Students will be able to identify the persons and events that mark the development of
▪ Students will be able to identify the services provided by crime laboratories, from full ser-
▪ Students will be able to identify the four court cases most often used in establishing the
acceptability of evidence/testimony in the courtroom
There are nine prominent men that accredited for the progression of Forensic
Science through history.
idence analyzed in that departmenttory can be subdivided into the types of ev-
Saferstein, 8 edition, pg. 1-22
Model 1 : Team Building
You should now be in a group of four. In that group, job as-
signments need to be given each time a POGIL is assigned during class
– it is recommended that the students in the group rotate through the
job assignments. On the provided worksheet, list the names of the peo-
ple in your POGIL group and the jobs that have been chosen for this
evening. You will be expected to get into these same groups of four dur-
ing each POGIL activity.
Manager –nmeactively participates, keeps the team focused on the task,
distributes work and responsibilities, resolves disputes, and
assures that all members participate and understand.
Recorder – actively participates, keeps a record of the assignment and
what the team has done, and prepares a report in consultation
with the others.
Spokesperson – actively participates and presents reports and discus-
sion to the class.
Strategy Analyst - actively participates, identifies strategies and meth-
ods for problem solving, identifies what the team is doing well
▯ and gets an instructors attention when a consultation is needed
POGIL Team Building
Team Members: ___________Mary Mik_____________
List team member followed by tonight’s role assignment ▯
company. You are planning to hire several new scientists in the coming months.
Identify eight characteristics that you will be seeking in the applicants.
▯ou have five minutes to finish this task before reporting will begin.
1. attention to detail
3. good with time management
4. works well independently yet be productive within a group
5. intelligent, confident public speaker
6. master’s degree in a science (i.e. chemistry)
7. legal advisor (i.e. what kind of evidence would be accepted, criminal justice, etc.)
8. ability to follow directions
Model 2 : Historic Timeline
Evidence of fingerprints in early paintings & rock carvings made by prehistoric humans.
▯ - 250 … ERASISTRATUS , an ancient Greek physician, observes that his patients' pulse
rates increase when they tell him lies. This is supposed to be the first lie detection test.
▯ - 44 …Ancient Roman physician ANTISTIUS examines the dead body of Julius CAESAR after
his assassination and finds that there are 23 stab wounds. The only one wound that was fatal, was on the
• 1000 - 1200
▯ ~1300 … In the Yuan Dynasty, a Chinese mandarin named Sung T’zu made the first recorded ob-
servations of the usefulness of insects in solving crimes – he identified the murderer by watching the flies
collect on the farmers scythe
▯ - 1658 … Sir Thomas BROWNE (1605-1682), an English physician, biologist,
philosopher, and historian, for many a pioneering forensic archaeologist, discovers
adipocere. In his book "HYDRIO-TAPHIA, Urne-Burial" he publishes scientific refer-
ence to the fatty, waxy, soap-like substance derived from decayed human corpses buried in
moist, air-free places.
▯ - 1784 … In Lancaster UK, John Toms is convicted of murder on the basis of the torn edge of a
wad of newspaper in a pistol matching a remaining piece in his pocket. This was one of the first known
documented uses of physical matching.
▯ - 1813 … Mathieu Bonaventure ORFILA(1787-1853), professor of medicinal
and forensic chemistry at Univ. of Paris, publishes Traite des Poisons. Considered the
presence of blood in a forensic context. Credited as the first to attempt the use of a mi-
croscope in the assessment of blood and semen stains.
▯ - 1830’s … LambertAdolphe Jacques QUÈTELET, a Belgian statistician,
man bodies were exactly alike.RTILLON ’s work by stating his belief that no two hu-
▯ - 1853 … Ludwik Karol TEICHMANN (1823-1895), Polish anatomist, attend-
ed medical school in Göttingen, Germany, and after graduation remained there as prosector of anatomy. In
tion of microscopic crystals of hemin. The simple, specific test developed by TEICHMANN for the pres-ara- ence of blood in suspect stains on clothes and other items became widely used in forensic medicine, a simi-
lar microcrystalline test was created in 1912 by TAKAYAMA
▯ - 1880’s … Dr. Henry FAULDS forwards an explanation of his fingerprint classification system to
Sir Charles DARWIN, who is too ill to be of assistance. DARWIN passes the material to his cousin
▯ - 1883 …Alphonse BERTILLON, a French police employee, identifies the first recidivist based on
his invention of anthropometry.
Beeton’s ChristmasAnnual of London.E publishes the first Sherlock Holmes story in
▯ - 1889 … Alexandre LACASSAGNE, professor of forensic medicine at the
University of Lyons, France, was a principal founder in the fields of medical jurisprudence and criminal
▯ - 1892 … Sir Francis GALTON, a British anthropologist and a cousin of Charles
DARWIN, publishes his book, "Fingerprints", establishing the individuality and perma-
nence of fingerprints and a first classification system. GALTON identifies the character-
istics by which fingerprints can be identified (minutia), basically still in use today
▯ - 1901 … Karl LANDSTEINER first discovers human blood groups and is
awarded the Nobel Prize for his work in 1930. Max RICHTER adapts the technique to
type stains. This is one of the first instances of performing validation experiments specifi-
cally to adapt a method for forensic science. LANDSTEINER´s continued work on the
detection of blood, its species, and its type forms the basis of practically all subsequent
▯ - 1904 … LOCARD publishes L'enquete criminelle et les methodes scientifique, in which ap-
pears a passage that may have given rise to the forensic precept that “Every contact leaves a trace.” In
1918 he first suggests 12 matching points as a positive fingerprint identification, and fully enunciates the
Locard's Exchange Principle in 1920
▯ - 1915 … Leone LATTES, professor at the Institute of Forensic Medicine in Turin Italy, develops
the first antibody test forABO blood groups. He first uses the test in casework to resolve a marital dis-
pute. He publishes L’Individualità del sangue nella biologia, nella clinica, nella medicina, legale, the
first book dealing not only with clinical issues, but heritability, paternity, and typing of dried stains.
▯ - 1920 … Calvin GODDARD, with Charles E. WAITE, Phillip O. GRAVELLE, and John H
FISHER, perfects the comparison microscope for use in bullet comparison.
▯ - 1923 … In FRYE v. United States, polygraph test results were ruled inadmissible. The federal
ruling introduced the concept of general acceptance and stated that polygraph testing did not meet that
▯ - 1983 … The Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) is first conceived by Kerry MULLIS, while he
is working at Cetus Corporation. The first paper on the technique was not published until 1985.
▯ - 1984 … SirAlec JEFFREYS a research fellow at the Lister Institute, Leicester University, dis-
covers a method of identifying individuals from DNA - Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP). He dubs it 'DNAFingerprinting' - a revolutionary new technique in Forensic Science, which is
perhaps the greatest single Forensic Discovery of the 20th Century.
▯ - 1993 … In DAUBERT et al. v. Merrell DOW, a U.S. federal court relaxes the FRYE standard
POPPER's views that scientific theories are falsifiable as a criterion for whether something is “scientific
knowledge” and should be admissible.
WAREis convicted of the rape and murder of a four year old girl after mitochondrial DNAprofilingl
matches him to a hair found on the body of the child.
crimeZZZ.net crimeline * hilike Prof.AnilAggrawal, Richard Munroe B.Sc.,Great thanks to many contributors
1. Identify the science process or principle each of the following scientists is known for:
– Aphonse Bertillion- measurement of physical features to identify criminals’
characteristics; anthropomotry (measurement of the human individual)
– Arthur Conan Doyle- discovered scientific principles before they were in use
– Francis Galton- British anthropologist who established the individuality of fin-
gerprinting; cousin of Darwin
– Calvin Goddard- perfects comparison microscope for bullet compares (two
microscopes side by side)
– Alexndre Lacassagne- professor in France for forensic medicine; founder of
jurisprudence and criminal anthropology
– Karl Landsteiner - discovers