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Class Notes
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United States
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Syracuse University
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Chemistry
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CHE 113
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Saphrin
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Lecture

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Description

What is the difference between ‘real’science and ‘pseudo’science?
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Why?
The analysis of pieces of evidence is an imperative part of bringing evidence into the courtroom.
The science behind the evidence is equally, if not more, important than the evidence. If the sci-
not be accepted into court. New scientiﬁc procedures must be proven before acceptance in the
courtroom.
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Learning Outcome
Students will be able to identify the components necessary for ‘real’science.
Students will be able to distinguish between the types of microscopes utilized during the analyses
of prominent physical and biological evidence gathered at the crime scene will emphasizing the
science of microscopy as a true science.
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New Concepts
Certain tests recognizable to the public or not accepted in the courtroom due to the
lack of scientiﬁc evidence needed to back up the analysis.
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The use of microscopy has come under ﬁre during the consideration of certain
types of physical evidence. Examination of the science behind microscopy will al-
low the students to decide for if the science can be considered viable.
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Prerequisites
Scientiﬁc Method
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Model 1 : PsuedoscienceActivity
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Questions
1.. If Sun sign astrology can predicts a person's day accurately, and everyone remembers the
day in question clearly (the astrologer's hypothesis), students should in general be able to ﬁnd
their own paragraph. But if chance instead of the stars governs the composition of those descrip-
tions (the skeptic's hypothesis), we would expect that only one out of 12 of the students would
have selected the description for their own signs.
Which have we substantiated, the astrologer or the skeptic? Explain your answer:
The skeptic. By the percentage taken from above, a minuscule section of individuals from
our class chose their horoscopes correctly. If the astrologist’s hypothesis rang true, we would
have seen a greater percentage of students who chose their horoscope’s paragraph correctly.
8.3% is roughly 1/12 of 100%. Comparing this with our class data of 8.6%/100, this concludes
that we should substantiate the skeptic who expects only 1/12 students would select their astro-
logical signs’paragraphs.
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▯ Exercises
Provide a list of other ideologies that are questionable as a science, and give an explanation as to
why they are questionable:
Old wives tales
Psychics/Mediums
Phrenology
Polygraph
Animal whisperers
Religion
Hypnosis
Racism
Aromatherapy
Zodiac
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Would any of the above ideologies be applicable in the courtroom? Why or why not?
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Not necessarily. The court looks for empirical evidence to link crimes with the victims, accused,
and physical evidence. These ideologies are branches oh pseudoscience which is always ques-
▯ionable.
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Model 2 : ScienceActivity
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Questions
1. If you are a judge, acting as ‘gatekeeper’, what will you need to consider in order to determine
if the evidence being presented is scientiﬁcally sound?
Whether or not the technique or theory has been tested in regards to a claim towards a crime’s
physical evidence and consider the techniques’potential error rates.
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Exercises
From previous discussions in class, deﬁne what a class characteristic is, and list an example:
Hair color, material composition, blood type, gender, race
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From previous discussions in class, deﬁne what an individual characteristic is, and list an exam-
Tear pattern, ﬁngerprint, voice, tire pattern, DNA, ballistics, iris pattern
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How has science changed the use of class characteristics vs. individual characteristics in the
courtroom? Explain your answer and give at least two examples to support your group discus-
sion.
Class characteristics are useful in that they aid in separating evidence, suspects, etc. out from a
large number of other things. For example, in an investigation, the team could be looking for a
brunette male with curly hair; this knowledge rules out any females, blonds, red-heads, or males
with straight brown hair.As an individual characteristic, a scientist may look at the hair sample
found at the crime scene and compare it to a potential murderer. With this working cohesively
with modern technology, one can conclude that the hair sample is identical or not by comparing
the two under a microscope. Overall, class and individual characteristics provide a general to
speciﬁc basis respectively in order to understand more about a crime.
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▯ Looking at the given pictures from a crime scene, identify the individual and class characteristics
that can be determined and identify the scientiﬁc method/apparatus that you believe will be
needed to analyze it::
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HYPERLINK "http://qwickstep.com/search/crime-scene-evidence.html" INCLUDE-
PICTURE "http://t0.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:oLF4AsaqH-MA-M:" \* MERGEFOR-
MATINET
THIS MODELIS PREPFOR THIS WEEK’s LAB
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Model 3 : Statistics
StatisticalAnalysis:
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Measures of Central Tendencies: give information about the average, or typical, data point, when
a large grouping of data is considered:
Mean: the calculated average – sum of all data points dived by the number of data
points collected.
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Median: the data set that sits in the middle when data is placed in numerical order.
Mode: the data point that appears the most times in the data set
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Measures of Variability: gives information about the data as a collective set
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Range: based on only two scores, the highest and the lowest, listed as a single value and is
the difference between the high and low data points.
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Standard Deviation: takes into account all the scores in the data set and indicates how much
one score deviates from another. You need to square every data point and add them all
together to find the numerator, while the denominator is simply the number of data
points collected. Once the quotient is determined, subtract the mean squared from it
and then the square root is taken
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▯ Variance: identifies an overall change found among the data set, and is simply the standard
deviation squared.
Probability
The probability of a particular event occurring is easily calculated. The number of ways
that particular event can occur divided by the total number of possible outcomes, will give
you the probability. If you’re looking to combine events, two methods are advised. If your
look for one event OR a different event, calculate the probabilities separately and thenADD
probabilities separately and then MULTIPLY them together.econd event occur, calculate the
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Questions
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▯. What is the difference between precision and accuracy?
Accuracy: how close you are to a true or accepted value
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Precision: how close data points are to each other or how reproducible an experiment is
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Identify the three ways to evaluate Central Tendencies:
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mean, median, mode
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▯dentify the three ways to evaluate Variability:
range, interquartile range, standard deviation
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Identify the two different ways you need to calculate probability:
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(1) outcomes.r of ways that particular event can occur divided by the total number of possible
(2) If your look for one event OR a different event, calculate the probabilities separately and then
ADD them together. If you’re looking to have one eventAND a second event occur, calcu-
late the probabilities separately and then MULTIPLY them together. ▯
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Exercises
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Knowing that 1 inch is equivalent to 2.54 cm, convert the following two measurements: (2
points)
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a. a person stands 67.3 inches tall, how tall is she in cm ?
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2.54 * 67.3 = 170.942 cm
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Professor M6eks has run several 15K race in Utica, how many inches are in a 15K
▯1.5 x10 cm)?
15,000*1,500,000 = 22500000000
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6. Identify the mean, median, mode, and range for the following problem:
Aset of bullet straie are compared to a standard, and the following are the numbers of
lines that are found to be matching:
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58, 62, 49, 52, 53, 58, 61, 50, 63, 59
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mean: 56.5
median: 58
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mode: 58
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range: 14
▯ Calculate the standard deviation and var

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