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CHE 113: DNA Analysis POGIL

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CHE 113

DNA Analysis How is a blood sample prepared and analyzed to create a DNA analysis? ▯ Why? You may remember DNA being referred to as the “blueprint of life”. Every living thing has netic code is a relatively new technique applied to Forensic Science. The sequencing of that genetic code is unique to individuals and allows a scientist to create an image of that genetic code – an image that is an excellent source of individualizing evidence. ▯ Learning Outcome ▪ Students will be able to identify the components of a DNA strand and how they interact ▪ Students will be able to understand the creation of a gel electrophoresis test, as well as read the results of such a test ▪such a test.ll be able to understand the creation of a STR test, as well as read the results of ▯ Nucleic Acids, VNTR, PCR, RFLP, Gel Electrophoresis, STR. ▯ ▪ Protein synthesis, translation of DNA, chromosomes, genes, human reproduction ▯ ▯eading Assignment ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ Model 1 : Nucleic Acids à DNA ▯ ▯ The DNA strand is a polymer made up a monomers consisting of a phosphate, a sugar, and a base. The nitrogenous base can be one of four: adenine, guanine, cytosine and thymine. The two strands of DNA are held together by a very strong intermolecular force of attraction called a hydrogen bond. The nitrogen or oxygen form one molecule is attracted to and held by the hydrogen in another molecule. The nitrogenous bases always line up with an adenine attracted to a thymine and a cytosine attracted to a guanine. This knowledge has allowed us to break apart the DNA strand, duplicate strands, and be- gin to understand exactly what a DNA strand codes for in the organism. DNA is lo- cated inside the nucleus of every cell nucleus inside the organism, tightly wound into chromosomal pairs. This nuclear DNA has ½ of the DNA coding from the mother AND ½ from the father of the organism. Another source of DNA is located in the mitochondria of the organism, although this DNA source is coded from the mother only. Questions 1. What is monomer of DNA called? What are its components? • nucleotide - 5-carbon sugar, nitrogenous base, and a phosphate group ▯ 2. What are the four nitrogenous bases and how do they pair up inside the DNA strand? • adenine with thymine / guanine with cytosine ▯ 3. forensic science?strand actually found in the organism? What does that mean to ▯ in the nucleus; cells with nuclei can only be used in order for testing (i.e. not hair) ▯ ▯ 1. Propose samples of evidence that could be taken from a crime scene that could be po- tentially rich sources for DNA evidence ▯ white blood cell, follicular tags, buccal swabs (cheek cells), sperm / semen ▯ ▯ 2. Can DNA be utilized for other purposes than crime scene investigations? • paternity / maternity tests • ancestry tests ▯ genome project ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ Model 2 : DNA Analysis I ▯ -Separation and Purification of DNA -Cutting the DNA into fragments using enzymes that recognize specific codes in the DNA strand is done during Restriction Fragment Length Poly- morphism (RFLP) -Separating the DNA strand fragments using elec- the gel they can move with the electricity (gel elec-
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