Chapter 3-5 Notes.docx

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Syracuse University
Communication and Rhet Studies
CRS 325

Chapter 3- Managing Speech Anxiety Public speaking anxiety (PSA)- fear or anxiety associated with either actual or anticipated communication to an audience as a speaker • Anxiety- state of increased fear or arousal o Depends on psychological traits, life experiences, genetic factor 1. Lack of Positive Experience • Key to overcoming speech anxiety o Solution= prepare well, practice, rehearse in front of people  This gives you experience 2. Feeling Different • Feel alone • Extra sensitive to idiosyncrasies o Solution= everyone is different in some way  Dress well and trust that you will make a good impression 3. Being the Center of Attention o Solution=put focus on speech, not you Pre-preparation anxiety= feel anxious the minute they know they will be giving a speech • Highly anxious= reluctant to begin planning for the speech • Anxiety can preoccupy the person so much that they miss vital information for the assignment Preparation anxiety= feel anxious when preparing the speech • Time and planning required = anxiety • Might hit a roadblock o Pressures produce a cycle of stress, procrastination, outright avoidance • Usually anxiety is lowest here Pre-PerformanceAnxiety= anxiety when rehearsing the speech • If anxiety is very high, they might choose to stop rehearsing o Anxiety stop time- allow your anxiety to present itself for up to a few minutes until you declare time for confidence to step in so you can proceed to complete practicing PerformanceAnxiety= most pronounced during introduction of the speech • Anxiety tends to be the highest just before speaking begins TraitAnxiety • High- naturally anxious much of the time o Start out nervous and get more nervous • Low- experience anxiety usually only in novel situations o Nervous starting but gain confidence throughout speech 9Ps: Prior Proper Preparation Prevents Poor Performance of the Person Putting on the Presentation 1.Prepare and Practice 2. Modify Thoughts andAttitudes • Keep positive thoughts 3. Visualize Success • Practice seeing yourself in an optimistic frame point 4. Activate the Relaxation Response • Fight or flight response- body’s automatic response to threatening or fear-induced events • Briefly Meditate • Use stress control breathing 5. Use Movement to Minimize Anxiety • Practice natural gestures • Move as you speak 6. Learn from Feedback • Evaluation allows you to compare what you are assigned to do and what you plan to do 7. Enjoy the Occasion • Learning opportunity not just another hurdle Chapter 4 – Listeners and Speakers • Feedback loop- circular response, continual flow between speaker and listener o You listen 40% and speak 35% of the time • Listening- conscious act of recognizing, understanding and accurately interpreting the messages communicated by others o Requires understanding nonverbal cues and emotions • Selective perception- people pay attention relatively to certain messages while ignoring others o We pay attention to what we hold to be important o We pay attention to info that touches our experiences and backgrounds o We sort and filter new information on the basis of what we already know • Dialogic communication- open sharing of ideas in an atmosphere of respect o Monologue- we try to impose what we think on another o Dialogue- encourages both speaker and listener to reach conclusions together • Active listening- listening that is focused and purposeful o Isn’t possible under conditions that distract us • Listening distraction- anything that competes for attention we are trying to give to something else o External listening distraction= jackhammers, poor lighting, o Internal listening distraction= tired, upset, hungry, angry PROBLEMS DURING DELIVERY • Passing distractions o Pause until distraction stops • Ongoing noise o Raise speaking volume • Sudden distraction o Minimize response and proceed • Audience interruption o Acknowledge and follow up or defer • Scriptwriting- focusing on what we will say next not the speaker • Defensive listening- wont like what the speaker is going to say or that you know better • Laziness and overconfidence- never assume that you already know what the speaker is talking about Cultural Barriers • Refrain from judging a speaker on the basis of their accent, appearance or demeanor o Focus on what is being said • Reveal your needs to the speaker whenever possible o Ask questions to clarify Active Listeners • Set listening goals • Listen for main ideas o Listen for organizational pattern, intro, conclusion, transitions • Watch for the speaker nonverbal cues and communicate their own • Watch for more direct eye
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