Chapter 6-7 Notes.docx

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Communication and Rhet Studies
CRS 325

Chapter 6 – Analyzing theAudience • Audience analysis- process of gathering and analyzing information about audience members’attributes and motivations with the explicit aim of preparing your speech in ways that are meaningful to them o Single most critical aspect of preparing a speech • Audience centered approach- should be maintained throughout the speech prep process, all the way to delivery • Understand the audience outlook and motivations o Let this info guide you in constructing the speech • Pandering- abandoning your own convictions or catering to audiences whims o Undermine your credibility • Attitudes- general evaluations of people, ideas, objects, events o People act in accordance with their attitude o Attitudes are based on beliefs  Beliefs- the ways people perceive reality • Feelings about what is true • Values – what attitudes and beliefs are shaped from o Most enduring judgments about what is good and bad in life o “If the value fits, use it” Gauge listeners feelings toward the topic • Topic is new to listeners o Show why the topic is relevant to them o Relate the topic to familiar issues and ideas in which they already have positive attitudes • Know relatively little about the topic o Stick to the basics and include background info o Steer clear of jargon and unclear terms o Repeat important info. Summarize often • Negatively disposed toward the topic o Establish rapport and credibility o Don’t directly challenge listeners attitudes  Begin with areas of agreement o Discover the negative bias o Offer solid evidence from sources they are likely to accept o Give good reasons for developing a positive attitude towards the topic • Hold positive attitudes toward the topic o Stimulate the audience to feel even more strongly  Emphasize the side of the argument with which they agree o Tell stories with vivid language • Captive audience o Motivate listeners to pay attention  Focus on what is most important and relevant to them  Pay close attention to the length of the speech o More challenging than voluntary audience Gauge listeners feelings toward the speaker • Feelings toward speaker = attentiveness and responsiveness to message • Identification- common bond or feeling o Listeners look for ways to find this with the speaker o Create identification by sharing a personal story, emphasizing a shared role • Responding to the audience as you speak o Smiles, eye contact = signs of likeness/agreement o Arms crossed across chest = signs of disagreement o Averted glances, slumped posture, squirming = disengagement • Engage with the audience o Invite people to share Gauge listeners feelings toward the occasion Adapt to audience demographics • Demographics- statistical characteristics of a given population o Age  Generational identity- the millennials or baby boomers o Ethnic/cultural background  Co-culture- social community whose values and style of communicating may or may not mesh with your own o Socioeconomic status (income, occupation, education)  Income- determines peoples experiences, has a ripple effect and influences other aspects of ones life  Occupation- important and easily identified, has a lot to do with what interests them  Education- influences ideas, perspectives, range of abilities • Well educated audience = sophisticated speech o Religion/political affiliation  Don’t assume they are all the same religion  Don’t assume same religion = same ideas o Gender  Social and psychological sense of ourselves as males or females  Sexist language- casts males or females into roles on the basis of sex alone  Gender stereotypes- oversimplified and often severely distorted ideas about the innature nature of what it means to be male or female o Disability  Respect, dignity  PWD = persons with disabilites • Target audience- individuals with similar characteristics, wants and needs whom you are most likely to influence in your direction • Audience segmentation- dividing a general audience into smaller groups to identify target audiences o Make a topic relevant to other members besides the target audience Adapt to Cultural Values • Hofstede’s Values Dimensions Model o Individualism vs. Collectivism  Individualistic – needs of individu
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