Resonance Disorders

5 Pages

Communication Sci & Disorders
Course Code
CSD 212

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-Voice disorders: disruption/change in voice quality -Aphonia: total loss of voice -Dysphonia: abnormal voice, disturbed phonation -Voice described by 3 criteria -Pitch/freq. -Loudness/amp. -Quality -Pitch (freq.) -Fundamental freq. = pitch -Males: 125 Hz -Females: 225 Hz -Children: 300 Hz -Vocal folds behave like strings -- 3 features change freq. -Length -Mass -Tension -Loundness (amp.) -Decibel level = loudness -Whisper = 20 dB -Quiet conversation = 30 dB -Normal converstion = 60 dB -Shouting = 80 dB -Quality descriptors -Harsh -Excessive muscle tension -Amp.s high freq. (speaking as if angry, but not yelling) -Breathy -Produced w/ partial whisper -VFs vibrating but not fully adducted during phonation -Hoarse -Breathy + harsh -VF tension + breathiness -Etiology of voice disorders -Organic: structural, neurogenic -Functional -Combo -Voice abnormalities unrelated to struc. change -Psychogenic causes -Conversion aphonia/dysphonia -Aphonia/dysphonia w/o evident pathology -Patient can still gargle, cough, laugh -Puberphonia -aka mutational falsetto -Cont'd use of high pitch by post-puberty male -Muscle Tension Dysphonia (MTD) -Tension in laryngeal muscles -Simul. contractration adductors/abductors -Hoarse (strangled) voice -Voice disorders due to neuro. impairment -Cerebral cortex, pyramidal tract, peripheral nerves, neuromuscular junctions -Unilateral VF paralysis -VFs can't be fully adducted => breathy voice -Surgical/medical mgmt -Spasmodic dysphonia -Very rare -Defect in basal ganglia of brain -Causes dystonia: muscles work against each other -Botox for treatment -Like Diane Rehm from NPR -VF abnormalities -Erythematous VFs -Redness/inflammation of VFs -Polyps -From vocal abuse -- onetime, like blister -Unilateral -Hoarse -Resolved w/ vocal rest -Nodules -"Calluses" in response to chronic trauma -Hoarse -Most common VF abnormalities -SLPs help patint eliminate vocal abuse/misuse -Contact ulcers -Appears as open sore -Granulation tissue -Causes -Excessive production of low pitch -Freq. non-productive cough / throat-clearing -GERD -Intubation -Papillomas -Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) -Warts that go away w/ time -Surgical removal if airway threatened -Carcinoma -Slowly form w/ smoking -Synergistic relationship w/ alcohol -Invades body of folds, not just covering -May metasize -Assessment of voice disorders -MD (physician/otolaryngologist) -Detailed case history -Instrumental eval. -Endoscopy: allows clinicians to see VFs & surrounding areas -Uses scope to look into nose, velopharyngeal area, larynx -Can observe Velophar. Insufficiency (VPI) -- inadequate closure -Topical anesthetic -Stroboscopy: mvmt of VFs can be examined -Clinical eval.: oral preipheral exam, observation, acoustic measures -Evaluate options -Voice therapy -Vocal hygiene -Maximize vocal func. -Eliminate excess tension -"Rebalance" respiratory & phonatory subsys. -Est. optimal vocal parameters (pitch, loudness) -Laryngectomy -Surgical removal of part of larynx -Usually bc of cancer -VFs removed => no more voicing -Tacheostomy: hole in neck th
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