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FST 202 (1)
J.Welsh (1)
Lecture 1

FST 202 Lecture 1: Agroecology

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Food Studies
FST 202

Agroecology Major environmental issues in agriculture 1-18-20 Intensive tillage used to loosens soil and allow for aeration water drainage and root growth Reduced OM (organic matter) and harms soil quality and structure Reduces fertility Leads to soil erosion off farm and on farm cost Monocultures uniformity and specialization makes mechanization more cost effective Less labor needed And increases need for external inputs to control pest and maintain soil fertility Synthetic Fertilizer needed to support monocultures since animal manure and crop rotation not employed Leaches easily more fertilizer + higher yield the right conditions Inexpensive famers just use one in case of perfect conditions Can lead to eutrophication (dead zones) Irrigation makes land productive 70 percent of water is used for agricultural purposes Chemical Pest Control In absence of crop rotation need an outside intervention Very effective in the short term Health effects target organisms on and off farm Resistance develops Genetic manipulation domestication animals Selectin the more stable plate Changes the nomadic life style Plant Breeding collects seeds with favorable traits repent them Transgene a package of DNAthat’s inserted into the genome of a cell via gene splicing across species Cisgenesis transferred within a species Genome editing DNA targeting and repair allow specific changes st any location within the plant T op Four Seed Firms Source: ETC Group Animal Agriculture Animals can digest cellulose in poor countries animals rely on pastures CAFO concentrated animal feeding operation 300 or more animal units 1000 pounds is one animal unit Poultry CAFO 3 thousand birds Agroecology The Agroecosystem Concept 1-23-17 Element of an ecosystem Composed of complementary relationships biotic and abiotic elements 4 levels of organization Organism population community and ecosystem Structural properties Diversity dominant species Number of species most abundant Vertical structu
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